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NOVEMBER 22 2012.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

NOVEMBER 22 2012  The Holocene – 10,000 ya o General warming of the worlds climate o Glaciers melt and sea levels increase = drowned coastlines o Environment change o Forests move up north  New species  New development of seasons  Marine isotope = we are in stage 1  Pleistocene / Holocene o Extinction of species such as polar bears, wholly mammoths. o The development of localized cultures as different responses to change  3 different ways  increase diet on a lot of species  narrow diet on a few species  so many resources that there is no problem o sedentary  protect territory and food resources  Europe = Mesolithic period  North America = Archaic period  Prior to holocene = large cultures in large areas  Archaic period = Development of regional cultures  o Plains hunters  Alaska to Gulf of Mexico  Bison which still lives today  Use hunters to drive herds off cliffs  Use large spear heads o ^ West of this region:  called Desert West  grasses move into the region  desert = less water  move around often in small groups  seeds and gathering become important = basketry is created o crushing them to flour o Easatern North America  Woodland and forests  New species like deer, squirrels, acorns o Inuit and Aleuts  Make it to green land from North America  2000 BC  focus on sea mammals  whale hunters  sophisticated boats to hunt= umiaks  large whales. Kayaks = smaller whales  transition to agriculture = Neolithic revolution o long time to develop o happened all over the world different timing  first in Middle East o domestication of plants and animals o changes social aspects as well  somebody wants to be in charge of wealth  because of use of agriculture o dogs were first to be domesticated  why? For hunting companions  evolved from wolves  definition of domestication = artificial selection o we pick traits in plants and animals which benefit us  domesticated plants see increase in size o example fruits o latrine effect = take big berries and put
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