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Human Antiquity Textbook Notes - Ch. 8

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 8The Emergence of the Human LineageCharles Dawson 1912found the missing link in England Piltdownbelieved t be earliest humanbones that had the mandible of an ape and the brain cranial looked similar to human pretty largethe remains were named Eoanthropus dawn manhad an ape like jaw and human braincaselater discovered to be fake it was just the cranium of a modern human and jaw of an orangutan what kept the belief Nationalism it was greatly regarded that the piltdown man was found onBritish soilhelped picture an early ancestor biggest difference bw ape and humanhumans Big brain therefore realized that the most changed part of our anatomy was the brain which would have developed first and had evolved the longesthelped conclude that the missing link should be an ape with a big headMISTAKEthis wrong idea led to not understanding the australopithecine due to their bipedalism BUT had apelike brainsdidnt fit with the model that the brain developed firstbrains developed 780000 bipedalism developed 4million years ago difference bw apesusThe Early Hominds Bipedal Primates1925 first evidence of hominid evolution Raymond Dartgiven a fossil found from a site Taunghad TWO important differences 1 the canine teeth which are usually long and large for apes with gaps to support them when jaws are shut were no bigger than those of a human child 2 the position of the foramen magnum the hole was underneath the skull rather than toward the back which showed a upright bipedal posture than a quadrupedal onethe remains were later named Taung Baby and classified as a link between apes and humanscalled the Australopithecus africanus Southern ape of Africa had many apelike traits but wasnt fully ready to be classified in the human familywas classified as a primate and instead of as a linkintermediary was actually a hominid a bipedal primateAustralopithecus Family Hominidae 4 generas bipedal primates1 Genus Ardipithecusthe more apelike hominids2 Genus Australopithecussmall brained gracileslender hominids w a mixed vegetable fruit diet3 Genus Paranthropussmallbrained robust hominids with a grassland vegetable diet4 Genus Homolarge brained and omnivorous hominidsonly the last exists the other three are extinct Ardipithecus ramidusground ape stands for roots fossil finds were dated 44 mya considered a hominid because the foramen magnum is more forward than in apes evidence of bipedalism and because of some of the detailed features of the elbow joint and teeth it is the most apelike hominid ancestor the canine teeth is larger compared to the other teeth than in later hominids believed to have existed close 2 the time when apeshominids split hence roots species nameAustralopithecus anamensis1995 consisted of apelike features like large canine teeth and parallel tooth rows the root of the canine is vertical like humans rather than angled as in apes the tooth enamel is thicker than in apes or in Ardipithecus ramidus more like later hominids believed that this species represents all the later hominids
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