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tut7 anta01

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Emma Humphrey

11/07/2011 Cranium Hominin Anatomy - Review Cranial Traits Gracile Australopithecines Apelike cranial traits in early Hominin/Human cranial traits hominins o Orthognathicface, reduced o Very prognathic– pre-maxilla o Prognathic face, cheek cheek bones, largecranium o Large teeth & jaw bones, reduced, small (500+ cc) o Wide rangeof tooth sizes cranium (300-500 cc) o Generalised diet o Large, spatula-like incisors, o Smaller incisors,canines, large canines, narrow molars wider flatter molars o Muscle attachment for chewing on o Diastema (gap for upper o No diastema sides of craniumrather than on A. afarensis canine) the back (no sagittalcrest) o No chin o Chin (modern human) o Relatively small temporal fossa o Low, short face o Sagittal crest, nuchal crest o No sagittalcrest, reduced o Somewhat posterior nuchal crest o Steep forehead foramen magnum o Long arms; curved fingers& toes o Supraorbital torus o More anterior foramen o Pelvis short + wide; femur angled (pronounced, continuous magnum inwards (thoughshort) brow ridge) o Reduced/no supraorbital o Definitely bipedal torus A. africanus Emergence of Homo (2.5-1.8 mya) Robust Paranthropines 1. Expandedbrain (avg. 640 cc +) • Generally less prognathic 2. More humancranialfeatures: increased • Smaller incisors, canines cranialvault height (reduced face); • Larger premolars & molars development of sloping“forehead” – Specialised diet – poor quality 3. Reductionin size of jaws and cheek • Muscle attachment for teeth - reduced lower face prognathism habilis chewing muscles on top P. robustus (tooth rows tucked under face) and/or rear of cranium – Sagittal crest 4. Reducedsexual dimorphism – Large temporal fossa 5. Human-like bodyproportions:small • Broad, high fa
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