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behaviour influences part 2.docx

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Achievement Motivation  each of us have the need to master certain skills and to achieve certain goals (be the best at a video game; be the top scorer of the team)  achievement motivation can be based on extrinsic motivation, but it’s definitely not based on biological motivation  those who have high levels of achievement motivation simply have a desire to accomplish a goal to a high standard  Alfred Adler (founder of birth order) believed there to be a universal drive in all humans: striving for perfection  Maslow’s hierarchy: the different levels represent needs which motivate behaviour  achieving goals is an important part of human nature and leads to success in and out of school  there are short and long term goals—typically short term goals (graduating high school) are stepping stones for long term goals (getting a good job) The Roots of Intelligence Testing  Sir Francis Galton (Charles Darwin’s cousin) was determined to find out if intelligence runs in families  by applying Darwin’s theory, he believed smart people should only mate with smart people, in order to produce smart offspring  he developed various ways of measuring intelligence, but wasn’t successful  Galton’s work influenced Alfred Binet to create the Binet Intelligence Test  Binet’s test was modified by Lewis Terman of Stanford University, and it became known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test  the Stanford-Binet is a standardized test—it’s first given to a representative sample of people and the results from the sample are used to compare those who take the test  majority of people have IQs between 85 and 115, with the average being 100  superior intelligence is above 120, while developmental disability is below 70  twins tend to have the same IQs—but it’s hard to determine if intelligence is environment or genetics because twins have the same genetics and are raised in the same environment typically (the same house)  however, twins who were raised apart still have similar IQs  adoptive children have more similar IQs with their biological parents than with their adoptive parents  environmental influences can affect IQ scores—the type of schooling, housing, nutrition  in the USA, IQ scores are on the rise, and since the genetics haven’t changed, it must mean that the environment Americans are being raised in are better (high quality homes, smaller family sizes, nutrition)  also, twins raised together have much more similar IQs than twins raised apart (meaning environment is a big influence) How Does Attitude Affect Behaviour?  the way in which you perceive and react to a si
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