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behaviour psych.docx

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Behavioural Psychologists  believed psychologists need empirical evidence (experiments) to understand and change human behaviour  Ivan Pavlov  unconditioned response: a natural response to an unconditioned stimulus  unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that naturally causes a response  conditioned stimulus: an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response after being paired with a unconditioned stimulus  conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus  classical conditioning: a type of learning where a once neutral stimulus comes to produce a particular response after pairing with a conditioned stimulus  Dog were fed and drooled; when they saw lab coat also drooled. Then, he rang a bell every time he brought food. Dog associated bell with food. He rings bell with no food, and dogs salivate.  applications to children hating doctors office, after immunization  Pavlov showed that it’s possible to study internal processes with external experiments.  B.F. Skinner  operant conditioning: a type of learning that uses rewards or punishments to achieve a desired behaviour  Skinner box—rat pushed button got food. Once food runs out, and rat tries a few more times, he stops pressing, thus causing extinction.  these techniques used to tread anxiety, phobias and panic disorders today patient slowly introduced to object/situation, until no more distress  education: big tasks broken into smaller tasks; punish/reward bad behaviour Humanist Psychologists  based on patient relationship of therapy  clients should be involved in recovery—not relying on therapist  favoured qualitative over quantitative (no experiments—pure observations: examining diariesm open ended surveys, unstructured interviews, Free Association)  Abraham Maslow:  interested in studying well people—self actualized person )reached full potential)  hierarchy of needs: move your way from bottom (basic needs
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