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economic and culture.docx

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Economic Systems and Culture  all human societies depend on economic systems to produce the resources that they need and to distribute those resources to people  all societies divide the labour—some along gender or kin lines, others in more complex ways Foraging Societies  humans have spent all of their time on their hearth as foragers (hunter gatherers)  this is why foragers are one of the most studied groups in anthropology  foragers tend to be very mobile to access the resources that change with the seasons  ex: Canada’s Aboriginals of the subarctic (Mistassini Cree) in the 1970s would normally hunt and fish intensively in the fall, and do cash-generating activities (guiding) and gathering berries in the summer  they move to different camps in the summer, fall, and winter to take advantage of the resources available  in foraging societies, labour is usually divided along gender lines—men hunt and built; women fished and child care  goods are distributed by reciprocity—an economic system of formal and informal sharing among members of a society to distribute resources fairly  you give a gift, expecting someone else will give one back  since people move so frequently, goods aren’t stored or hoarded  personal accomplishments are devalued, and food is shared among many, and consumed as soon as it is collected  in foraging societies, all members of society contribute to the survival of the group, and there are few, if any, status divisions Horticultural Societies  horticultural is a form of semi-nomadic agriculture  they practice agriculture but don’t irrigate or cultivate the soil  the people usually use up the soil in one area for a few years, and then move to a new area 
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