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roots of sociology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

The Roots of Sociology  Ibn Khaldun was a 14 century philosopher of history who wrote about the world around him  contained valuable information about the political events and social problems of the Muslim world  his work is the record of the pre-modern world filled with observations about society and social conditions  sociology hadn’t existed during his time (therefore he was considered forefather of sociology)  discipline of sociology didn’t formally exist until the Industrial Revolution of England th th (18 and 19 century)  a period of massive change in agriculture and manufacturing  the changes of revolution significantly altered the social, economic, and cultural conditions of England  every aspect of daily life was altered by the changing economy (how people worked and lived for example)  revolution benefited middle class, it had disastrous effects on the working class (many lost jobs to machines, poor work conditions, poor pay, child labour)  many came to the city to find jobs  overcrowded cities (poor living conditions, high crime rates)  many people began documenting the social problems they observed, and many of the theories of social inequality from the Industrial Revolution are still applicable today Defining Sociology  sociologists study the interactions among people living together in a society, and their actions, beliefs, and behaviours in order to understand society  sociologists also compare and contrast human interactions between different societies  sociologists examine a wide range of issues and topics to investigate problems like gender roles, family structure, social classes, criminal behaviour, ethnicity, sexuality and social institutions  August Comte (French philosopher) was the first to use the term sociology  defined sociology as the systematic study of society  believed that society is
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