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influence of others.docx

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Section 8.1—Influences of Others on Self Psychology and Socialization  socialization begins as soon as a newborn baby bonds with his/her parents, and this continues throughout life  according to social learning theory, children learn social behaviours by observing and intimidating the behaviours of those around them, and these behaviours are reinforced by rewards/punishment  as primary agents of socialization, parents need to teach their child appropriate social skills at each stage of childhood Socialization and Emotional Development  for many children, effective socialization is linked to fewer problems throughout their school years and beyond (they develop friendships more easily, and have a stronger sense of identity)  these children also have a greater understanding of their emotions and how to deal with them  psychologists believe that there are specific social skills that children learn as they age: Social Development Needs from Birth to 12 Years Age Developmental Milestones Birth to 6 Develop Trust—makes eye contact and begin smiling to primary months caregiver/familiar people 6 to 18 Explores Self, Feelings, and Surroundings—crawl away from months parents, plays with others, communicates needs by pointing Begin to Develop Perspective—have vocabulary of about 200 18 to 36 words, plays with others, understands that others have different months opinions than them 3 to 5 Develops a Sense of Purpose—continue to have curiosity and years imagination, plays competitive games, develops sense of right and wrong Develops Self-Confidence—expands social environment, picks up 6 to 12 social cues from others, works cooperatively, learns to cope with years mistakes Importance of Play in Childhood Development  parents often assume it is important for their child to spend a lot of time with others their own age in order to socialize  while some social time with peers (play dates) to develop preschool social skills is healthy, early socialization should be mainly from parents/guardians  these adults have a wealth of social and emotional resources that the child’s peers don’t have (ex: ability to describe emotions verbally, interpret emotions of others, predict long-term consequences)  modelling and ex
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