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Mesopotamia-Key Words/Concepts: Epic of Gilgamesh -first piece of written literature -written in cuneiform -story is of a Sumerian king who ruled Uruk around 2600 BCE Anthropomorphic -gods had human traits (appearance and characteristics) Polytheistic -people worshipped many gods and goddesses Lugals -the king of city-states Ziggurats -high temples -dedicated to a god’s honour -house for god while on Earth -daily offerings of food for god Key Rivers of Mesopotamia -Euphrates and Tigris -provided fertile land for crops -irrigation -transportation Sumerians (3500BCE to 1900BCE) -Achievements -government and law, military, wheel, cuneiform writing, Epic of Gilgamesh -Weaknesses -struggle for power between city-states Assyrians (1900BCE to 1300BCE) -Achievements -Hummurabi’s Law Code, trade (Arabia, Persia, India, and Asia), Currency (Shekel, Mina, and Talent) -Weaknesses -weak kings had trouble controlling the empire Babylonians (1300BCE to 609BCE) -Achievements -library (20,000 clay tablets), use of iron, perfected drainage and sewage system, roads, post office -Weaknesses -to big for one leader to handle, borders attacked, struggle for power after a kings death, ruthless Egypt-Key Words/Concepts: Hieroglyphics -system of writing Ka -spiritual duplicate -heart -stayed in the tomb and needed food, clothes, etc. Ba -personality -human-headed bird -can leave tomb Akh -physical remains -must be preserved to go to afterlife Ma’at -goddess that personifies order and truth throughout the world Pyramids -built during the Old Kingdom as tombs for pharaohs -controversy over how they were built -covered in lime stone Accomplishments of New Kingdom -army is developed -arts -many monuments are built -trade extended Accomplishments of Old Kingdom -hieroglyphics improve -pyramids are built -pharaohs become rulers Mastabas -a tomb with sloping sides -evolved into the pyramids -mastabas->step pyramids->pyramids Saqqara -first pyramid -step pyramid -built by Imhotep for Djoser Egyptian Wall Painting -Profile -head looking to the side -full eye visable -Colour -men painted red-brown -woman painted yellow-brown -Stance -hips 3/4 turned -chest and shoulders shown from front -Scale -size reflects status -men>woman -Proportions -hands and feet larger than should be Demotic -form of Egyptian writing Scribe -someone who is responsible for writing things down Mesopotamia-Key People: Hammurabi -king of Mesopotamia -created a code of law -one of the earliest collection of laws -had physical punishments and fines Ashurbanipal -ruled most of the then known world -managed to hold togeth
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