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Human Origins/ Characteristics of a Civilization BCE/CE BC—>BCE AD—>CE new form is more politically correct Human Evolution Timeline Ardipithicus ramidus—–4.4 mya Australopithecus anamensis —–4.1 mya Australopithecus afarensis —–3.18 mya Australopithecus africanus —–3 mya Homo habilis —–2.5 mya Homo erectus —–2 mya Homo sapiens —–230,000-450,000 years ago Homo sapiens sapiens —–40,000 years ago Homo habilis-2.5 mya -bridge between Afarensis and the Paleolithic Age -larger brain -teeth like modern humans -first to use stone tools and fire Neanderthals- 23,000-30,000 years ago -type of Homo sapien -traveled from Africa to Central Asia and the Middle East -might have been wiped out by Homo sapiens sapiens Life -hunters and gatherers -short life expectancy -group hunting -tools -religion -buried and mourned dead Characteristics -broad noses -thick eyebrow ridges -short limbs, stocky and powerful bodies Lucy-Australopithecus afarensis -3.18 mya -common ancestor of humans Great Leap Forward -advances in tech, art, and culture -creativity and planning -mostly modern anatomy -pillars of civilization (fire, speech, tool making, hunting, social organization) Characteristics of a Civilization 1. Centralized Government -laws -leaders 1. Agricultural Intensification -irrigation -dikes reclaimed land -calendar -increase in agricultural productivity -leisure time 1. Specialization in Occupations -enough food let people pursue other activities -industries and trade (baker) 1. Class Structure -equality -no equal access to land -nobility controlled government 1. Merchants and Trade -trade of manufactured goods -shops and markets -bartering more complex -long distance trade 1. Development of Science and Writing -inventions -early writing for ownership of goods -important for laws and religion 1. Religion -not essential -early civilizations had a link between government and religion Mesopotamia Cuneiform -mesopotamia’s greatest contribution to western civilization -transmission of knowledge, the codification of laws, records to facilitate farming and trade -circe 3500BCE -spread to persia and egypt -helped civilizations grow -carved on wet clay tablets -wedged shaped carvings Epic of Gilgamesh -about the legendary king of Ur, a Sumerian king -written in cuneiform -oldest book known Code of Hammurabi -first law code -282 laws -in cuneiform Ziggurats -home for gods when on earth -temple -daily offerings of food Nebuchadnezer -created the hanging gardens of Babylon -peaceful reign -lots of construction projects Fertile Crescent -the land between the rivers -many early civ’s started here -excellent farming conditions Egypt Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) -1352-1336 BCE -change old ways -built a new capital -ch
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