Class Notes (806,431)
Canada (492,249)
Anthropology (1,560)
ANTA01H3 (412)

Lecutre 2 .docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

September 18, 2012 Introduction of Anthropology: Evolution and Genetics Outline: - evolution is decent with modification - history and evolution - mechanism - genetics - processes - case studies Concepts: Evolution and human origins what is evolution? How's does it work? 1. Adapt to environment 2. Natural selection 3. Sexual selection 4. Variation already exists 5. Survival of the fittest What is a species? A group of creates which breed together and produce viable and fertile offspring. - may be quite similar in appearance (deer) or quite variable (dog) - may all live in one art of the world or in many parts of the world - share behavioral traits relating to social groups, foods preference, reproductive strategies, etc. - distinguished between members of own species and others Pre- Enlightening Period (1600-1700s) - According to Genesis - Adam and Eve created story - everything was made in 6 days - animals - men - technology History of Origins Origin of the Earth and therefore humans based on his interpretation of the bible. - Archbishop Ussher (1640AD) First person to tell us about the origins of the earth He sat down with genesis and counted out the number of generations in the book of genesis to figure out how old the world was. He figured out it was 6,000 years at the time. He thought the exact day was October 23. Geology Contributes - catastrophists - George Cuvier - if only 6000 years old, then global and violent catastrophes to explain canyons, mountains....? - Reverend Burnet (1681AD) Noticed the things like erosions where happening in slow processes not fast catastrophes slow erosion? Water, wind and ice ********* Uniformitarianism ********* Uniformitarianism: the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. - Buffon (1749AD) "to learn about the earth study the earth" process are known, natural and observable that we should be able to record the processes we see today to explain the past. He retracted this statement for fear of his life. - Hutton (1788AD) slow working uniform and natural process = hundreds of thousands of years.came to the conclusion that the earth was 100,000 years old September 18, 2012 - Lyell (1873Ad) 100,000 years "The present is the key to the past" - Reverend Chalmer - Ussher was wrong, not the bible. That he didn't count back the number of generations correctly and the earth is 100,000 years old At the same time ...... Carolus Linnesius (1748) Famous for naming most for naming most of the species of the plant. Plants and animal, came up with the binomial system, he did this by using functional anatomy. Linnesius tried to look at the relationship between different species based on how similar or different their appearance was. What he inadvertently done were name humans as one of these animal species. He was the first to say that we are a part of the same system. - comparative biology - categorizing the worlds plants and animals - 7 basic layers or taxon levels - Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species - Binomial system - Homo sapiens ( wise man) Adding to the fire - colonization - identified new people's not mentioned in the bible - archaeology - stones tools - 'Thunderstones' Life on earth had changed - conclusion of the enlightenment period - fossils - extinct animals - strata and stratigraphy - 1800's the question changed to "How did the earth/ species change" Lamarck - first mechanism 1. Species adaptation to the environment = TRUE Examples: during the drought the animals who can reach the leaves are more likely to survive so the trait for the stretched neck is past on. 2. Species progression towards perfection = FALSE Examples: worms would eventually evolve into humans and humans would evolve into angles. 3. Species inheritance of acquired characteristics = FALSE Examples: whatever characteristics your parents acquired would be pasted down to you. Darwin and Wallace Mechanism of natural selection - natural selection Variation already exists between individuals of the same species allows for adaptation to changes in the environment. Evolution happens to populations not individuals. It's the frequency of traits in the population that changes. - Survival of the fittest and sexual selection Those individuals that are by the chance best adapted to an environment will have higher reproductive success. - increases the frequency of that within the species/population - variation is random and there is no direction Darwin's finches - Changes occurs as an adaptation to a changing local environment. - Change works on the variation of traits already present in a population September 18, 2012 - no direction Natural Selection 1. Favorable variation promotes survival of individual in whom they appear - traits are inherited by their offspring, whose chances of survival also better. - Favorable variation eventually spread through the population 2. Unfavorable variations don't promote survival - may cause the individuals to die at an early age - may reduce the fertility of bearers, who have few off springs - either way, unfavorable baristas tend to be removed from the population 3. For any species, natural forces act to favor the expansion for some traits and to favor the removal of other traits from future generation. What is evolution and natural selection working on? Process - mutation - genetic flow - genetic drift Gregor Mendel: Austria 1822 - 1884 - breeding experiments with pea plants. - traits in offspring are not passed solely by either parent - traits are passed in small, independent packages from both parents - we call these packages "genes" Mendel's breeding program - cross-bred green peas with green peas - offspring of any generation always had green peas - cross-breed yellow peas with green peas - all offspring plants (f1 generation) bore green peas - cross-bred green offspring (f1 generation) had green peas and some had yellow peas - some of their offspring plants (f2 generation) had green peas and some had yellow peas - ration of green to yellow plants in f2 generation was always 3:1 F3 generation - what would the pun net square look like if we crossed: - green YY and green Yy - each observed trait derives from a package of information (gene) acquired by the individual at conception - for each trait, an individual possesses two genes: one from each parent. - Two matching genes Homozygous state: For a given trait, individual receives the same gene form from parents. Green and Green - heterozygous state: Individual receives two different gene forms
More Less

Related notes for ANTA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.