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ANTA01 lecture 2.doc

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Joyce Parga

ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2 Inside a cell - Mutochondria - Ribusomes - Nucleus o Nuclear membrance o DNA - Cell Membrance - Cytoplasm Nucleus - It is the control centre of the cell - Contains nuclear DNA o Comes from both parents (mom & dad) Mitochondria - Energy-producing part of the cell o Convert energy from nutrients to a form that cells can use - Contains mitochondrial DNA o Only comes from your mother Ribosomes - Site of protein manufacture in the cell 1 ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - Examples of various ways it can be used to answer research questions 1. Inferring social group structure (the way they make) o DNA testing allowed us to get a picture of the way people lived like o The men were relatives but all the females were not o Males stayed together and women left 2. Paternity testing o Genetic testing like blood, hair, fecies to find out who/ which male is the father o DNA can answer questions that we can’t through observation o Common Bonoboo Chimpanzee - Mild, copulate a - Usually much V.S. lot more - Not aggressive, aggressive no cannabilish 3. Inferring when closely related species diverged in the past 2 ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2 DNA structure DNA structure Bases:  A = adenine  C = cytosine  T = thymine 3 ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2  G = guanine A always bonds with T C always bonds with G DNA is a code with A, C, T, G DNA Replication Protein synthesis - DNA directs the synthesis (production) of proteins. - Examples of proteins: o Collagen (in connective tissues) o Hemoglobin (HB) – in red blood cells, binds to oxygen to transport it in the body o Lactase  enzyme that breaks down lactose, the “sugar” in milk  Lactose intolerant  your DNA does not tell your body to make lactase - Proteins are made up of amino acids. (pg. 41 figure 3-4) 4 ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2 Amino Acids Protein synthesis - we begin in the nucleus and end in the ribosome 1. we are in the cell in the nucleus a. to make a protein … it tells your body to make this 2. The DNA unwinds, to the double relix 3. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is the messenger, it is like DNA but it is a single strand, we make that because the DNA can’t leave the cell and proteins are made outside of the cell and RNA can only leave. - Transcription: sequence of base pours is copied onto a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) o RNA takes the code to the ribosome - Ribonucleic acid (RNA) o It is like DNA except:  Only a single relix  Bases include uracil (U) instead of (T) thymine 4. mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves through ribosome allows tRNA to come in. We need different amino acids to come in to make the proteins. tRNA attaches the amino acids together to make a choun of amino acids. - Translation: information from the mRNA is used to produce a specific protein in the ribosome 5 ANTA01 Genetics/ Processes of Evolution Lecture 2 o There are many transfer RNA (tRNA) which brings the AA together - Codon: a set of 3 bases that codes for a particular amino acid (tRNA) molecule Genetics principles Discovered by Mendel - Gregor Mendel - Worked with pea plants - Looked at plant traits that had 2 character states o Round, wrinkled o Yellow, green o Purple flowers, white flowers o Tall, snort stemmed
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