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Lecture 3

ANTA01 Lecture 3.doc

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Joyce Parga

ANTA02 Non-Human Primates and Primate Behaviour Lecture 3 Primate Characteristics - Grasping extremities (prehensile hands, sometimes feet) - Opposable thumb, and in most species, divergent big toe - Nails instead of claws - Stereoscopic vision (we can see in 3-D) o Made possible by binocular vision (overlapping fields of vision) - Large brain relative to body size - Decreased reliance on sense of smell o Emphasis on usual communication - Post-orbital bar (cranial feature) - Calycle (collar bone) - Denmatoglypns (finger prints) Dentition - Dental formula: indicates the number of each type of tooth in each quadrant - Many primates eat a variety of foods, but are categonized with respect to what they primarily eat. o Failovers (leaves) o Frugivores (spider monkeys) (fruit) o Insectivores (tree sap) o Omnivores (humans, chimpanzees)  eat a little of everything Different forms of Locomotion 1 ANTA02 Non-Human Primates and Primate Behaviour Lecture 3 - Quadrupedal: walking on 4 legs - Vertical clinging and leaping o Some lemurs, tarsiers - Brachiation o ribbons - knuckle: Walking - Chimpanzees  Strepsirhines: General Characteristics - Dental comb (modified incisors and canines) / toothcomb - “Grooming claw” on 2 ndtow - Tarentum lucidum (eye shine on animals) o Dogs, cats have this, a structure in the retina allows eight to be reflected, the animal is likely to be active at night - Small bodied than anthropoids - Many are nocturnal and live solitarily o Mouse lemur, potto - Some practice “infant parking” o Galago, ruffed lemur - Others are day-active and group living o Ring-tailed lemur, sifaka - All have a rhinarium (must pad at lend of the nose) - Olfaction plays a large role in their social communication o Scent-marking (functions in temporality and/ or reproductive advertisement) Anthropoids: General Characteristics - Larger body size than pnosimians, and larger relative brain size - No rhinarium, reduced reliance on smell - Increased parental care - Increased gestation lengths, longer tie to reach sexual maturity (wife history differences) 2 ANTA02 Non-Human Primates and Primate Behaviour Lecture 3 - K-selected: “… strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring, in whom they invest increased
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