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Lecture 4

ANTA01 Lecture 4.doc

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Joyce Parga

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ANTA01 Methods in Evolutionary anthropology and Archaeology Lecture 4 Terms - Hominin o evolutionary group that includes modern humans and our (now- extinct) bipedal relatives - Hominoid o Humans (including hominines and apes) Paleoanthropology - “… study of fossil hominids - Includes the study of non-human primate fossils - “Lucy” Australopithecus afarersis, Sivapithecus Archaeology - Focuses on the human (hominin) past since the development of (evidence of) culture - Beginning approximately 26 mya o Earliest stone tools and tool-making debris - But humans were probably making tools before this out of perishable materials (e.g. wood) - Artifacts: objects or materials made or modified for use by hominines - Taphonomy o Study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils Archaeology: Methods - Site survey o Process of discoving the location of archaeological sites o Also called site reconnaissance - Aerial and satellite imagery - Remote sensing techniques - “test pits” - Large scale excavation o Excavation is destructive; it destroys context - Context: “the spatial and temporal associations of artifacts and features in an archaeological site’ o Different interpretations possible depending on locations of artifacts ANTA01 Methods in Evolutionary anthropology and Archaeology Lecture 4 - Need to preserve context information in both vertical and horizontal dimensions o Plumb lines can be used to divide the area into a grid of square columns Archaeology - Features o Products of human activities that cannot be removed from the archaeological record as a single di
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