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Lecture 4

ANTA01 Lecture 4.docx

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Joyce Parga

ANTA01 Lecture 4  Continued.. from last week  Apes – chimpanzees, gorillas great apes, orangutans and gibbons/siamangs  lesser apes  Lesser apes: little thinner, smaller body.  Gorillas – found in single-male, multi-female and multi-male, multi female groups  Groups usually have at least 1 “silverback” male  Vegetarian, they have relatively low levels of aggression . Common chimps- more aggressive than gorillas  Chimpanzees: pan troglodytes – common chimp, larger, more aggressive  Pan paniscus- pygmy chimp (bonobo) – very calm, not aggressive, copulates wisely  Both live in multi- male, multi-female groups characterized by a fission-fusion social system  In bonobo groups, females can be dominant (females can be alpha animal); not the case among common chimp. This wouldn’t be like this for common chimps. Bonobo groups are more egalitarian.  Tool use: “fishing for termites and ants  Primatologist consider this as Culture – regional for one particular area and a learned behavior.  Nut- cracking – teaching the infant very slowly [the repetition of steps, something that can be socially learned]  Orangutans – Live semi-solitarily (single males and females come together to mate or if food is abundant in an area). She won’t leave the infant, and would be attached to the body for 4 months – 3-4 years old baby would still be suckling  Long period of infant dependence; males provide no infant care  Gibbons and siamangs (lesser apes) : Live in stable male-female pairs (“par bonded”)  Once thought to be monogamous but extra-pair copulations (EPCs) occur.  Pairs: sometimes they move off and maintain a sort of distance.  copulation (somebody who belongs in the group)  Sexual dimorphism: differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species – can be in body size and/or color e.g. Orangutans – normal for their species  You can have sexual dimorphism in color – females have orangie color but males – black  It can be both color and size at the same time or only one  OW monkeys and great apes show sexual dimorphism in body size with larger males  New world monkeys tend not to have sexual dimorphism unlike old world monkeys  Sexual selection: 2 main components :  Intra-sexual selection; competition among same-sex individuals (usually males) for mating opportunities. E.g. physical fights (large body size, masculer, more physical power ) or females fighting with females. Most of the time males fighting with males  Inter-sexua
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