Anthro Lecture 10
Final exam – Friday aug 9 2-4.
Agriculture “ cultural activities associated with planting, herding and processing
domesticated species; farming.” E.g. Plants, Animals. – might be for food or other
Domestication: an evolutionary process “ state of interdependence between
humans and selected plant or animal species” – start raising cattle for food. The
animals are no longer wild as they are used for food production. E.g. dogs.
Artificial selection: selective breeding of animals or plants that have
characteristics that are considered desirable by human – ancestral rock
pigeon , different forms of same general species.
Major changes can occur rapidly. Humans are responsible for it.
Likely first organism domesticated – dogs (~40,000-15,000 ya) – genetic
evidence suggests they came from a single source in East Asia
All dogs are derived from the wild wolf, Canis Lupus
Used as a hunting ‘weapon’, herder, and transporter of possessions
Burial of a human with a puppy (~12,000 ya) – Ein Mallaha, Israel
Distinctive features of domesticated animals 1) size changes: modern pigs and
old pigs, the size: go from lager, to make them bigger for more meat might
backfire and people might pick the smaller ones.
Larger means more meat (if food species), but more difficult to handle, so
smaller size may be selected for
2) changes in defensive/offensive traits – e.g. smaller canine teeth, smaller horns
3_ pathological changes: range restriction or other means of control can result in
teeth and bone changes (e.g. weaker, more gracile bones). If they are wild then
they would move around a lot but domestication can control it
E.g. Turkey – killed for food while domestication. Growing fast and large but
later thought of keeping it a pet and the leg broke because of the body weight.
Selection depending on certain purposes
4) Population characteristics: young males might be culled at high rates,
whereas females are allowed to live longer. Lots of males killed off but not
females cause they would provide milk and only few males are needed to
Faunal remains – bones and other animal parts found in archaeological sites.
Important in the reconstruction of past ecosystems and cultural subsistence
patterns. [know this definition ** ]
Distinctive features of domesticated plants 1) seed size changes – carbonized
marsh elder seeds from an archaeological site in N.America
Domesticated plants generally have larger seeds than their natural precur