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ANTA01H3 Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

ANTA01H3 Lecture 2  Genetics/processes of evolution.   Mitochondria, DNA, nucleus, ribosomes – are the ones that will be covered.  Nucleus: It is the “control centre” of the cell, Contains nuclear DNA- you get it both from mom and dad. Not true for mitochondria dna. Has an irregular shape.  Mitochondria: “power house of the cell/ energy producer of the cell”  Contains mitochondrial DNA – only get it from your mom. Lewis et al., Fig. 3-19, p. 58.  Ribosomes: site of protein manufacture in the cell.   **Endoplasmic reticulum – know this definition, storage side of the cell. DNA directs the making of protein. A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): examples of various ways it can be used to answer research questions.  Inferring social structure- men stay with brothers.  Paternity testing. It can be done by blood, feces but can’t answer using behavior as a source  Common chimpanzee,- more muscular, larger, can be aggressive. bonobo – not that aggressive but more mild.  Inferring when closely related species diverged in the past.  DNA structure   “Double helix” structure – that’s twisted.  Fig 3-8 (p.44, Lewis et al.)  When chromosome forms it replicates the dna.  DNA Structure  Bases: A = adenine  C = cytosine  T = thymine  G = guanine  A always bonds with T  C always bonds with G   Figure 3.2  Part of a DNA molecule. The illustration shows the two DNA strands with the sugar and phosphate backbone and the bases extending toward the center.  All of our dna’s have ACTG, very specific.  Take notes on this figure from the textbook **  DNA Replication   If you need dna then you need more skin cells. This is happening inside the cell, inside the nucleus.  Fig 3-3 (p.41, Lewis et al.)  The template strands are important – they won’t reform. The old strands forms with the new strands and the cycle goes on.  Take notes from textbook **  Protein Synthesis: dna tells your body what to make/ what to do  DNA directs the synthesis (production) of proteins. Examples: collagen (in connective tissues) as people get old your skin would not snap back, you lose the elastic aspect  Hemoglobin (Hb)- in red blood cells, binds to oxygen to transport it in the body- allows you to take the oxygen and carry it through your tissue which keeps up the other functions such as breathing, respiratory system and so on  Lactase: enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk, if you can digest lactose your body can break it down and make use of it but if you’re lactose intolerant your body can’t – dna is coding for it  Proteins are made up of amino acids- they are all different, bigger, smaller  Fig 3-4: Hb (p.41, Lewis et al.  Amino acids –look at the figure in ppt  Protein Synthesis:  transcription: sequence of base pairs is copied onto a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA)  starts at nucleus and ends at ribosomes. Making a mRNA- basically like dna but it’s a messenger RNA. – takes the code to the ribosome that would make the protein   Ribonucleic acid (RNA) – its one.  Its like DNA except: 1) only a single helix  2) bases i
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