ANTA01H3 Lecture 2
Genetics/processes of evolution.
Mitochondria, DNA, nucleus, ribosomes – are the ones that will be covered.
Nucleus: It is the “control centre” of the cell, Contains nuclear DNA- you get it
both from mom and dad. Not true for mitochondria dna. Has an irregular shape.
Mitochondria: “power house of the cell/ energy producer of the cell”
Contains mitochondrial DNA – only get it from your mom. Lewis et al., Fig. 3-19,
Ribosomes: site of protein manufacture in the cell.
**Endoplasmic reticulum – know this definition, storage side of the cell.
DNA directs the making of protein. A membrane network within the
cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport
of cellular materials. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): examples of various ways it can be used to answer
Inferring social structure- men stay with brothers.
Paternity testing. It can be done by blood, feces but can’t answer using behavior
as a source
Common chimpanzee,- more muscular, larger, can be aggressive. bonobo – not
that aggressive but more mild.
Inferring when closely related species diverged in the past.
“Double helix” structure – that’s twisted.
Fig 3-8 (p.44, Lewis et al.)
When chromosome forms it replicates the dna.
Bases: A = adenine
C = cytosine
T = thymine
G = guanine
A always bonds with T
C always bonds with G
Part of a DNA molecule. The illustration shows the two DNA strands with the
sugar and phosphate backbone and the bases extending toward the center.
All of our dna’s have ACTG, very specific.
Take notes on this figure from the textbook **
If you need dna then you need more skin cells. This is happening inside the cell,
inside the nucleus.
Fig 3-3 (p.41, Lewis et al.)
The template strands are important – they won’t reform. The old strands forms
with the new strands and the cycle goes on.
Take notes from textbook **
Protein Synthesis: dna tells your body what to make/ what to do
DNA directs the synthesis (production) of proteins. Examples: collagen (in
connective tissues) as people get old your skin would not snap back, you lose the
Hemoglobin (Hb)- in red blood cells, binds to oxygen to transport it in the body-
allows you to take the oxygen and carry it through your tissue which keeps up
the other functions such as breathing, respiratory system and so on
Lactase: enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk, if you can digest
lactose your body can break it down and make use of it but if you’re lactose
intolerant your body can’t – dna is coding for it
Proteins are made up of amino acids- they are all different, bigger, smaller
Fig 3-4: Hb (p.41, Lewis et al.
Amino acids –look at the figure in ppt
transcription: sequence of base pairs is copied onto a molecule of messenger
starts at nucleus and ends at ribosomes. Making a mRNA- basically like dna but
it’s a messenger RNA. – takes the code to the ribosome that would make the
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) – its one.
Its like DNA except: 1) only a single helix
2) bases i