Class Notes (808,489)
Canada (493,250)
Anthropology (1,561)
ANTA01H3 (413)
Lecture 5

ANTA01H3 Lecture 5.docx

2 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

ANTA01H3 Lecture 5  Archaeology:  Ecofacts: ―natural materials that give environmental information about a site ―  Fig 8-8 (p.181)  E.g. Land snails (not the coin – that would be an artifact!), antlers, pollen grains  Dating methods: relative dating  ex. Stratigraphy cross-dating  methodological basis: provides a sequence only; i.e no estimates in actual number of years  Absolute dating (chronometric dating)  ex. K/Ar, radiocarbon (carbon-14), thermoluminescence (TL)  most techniques are radiometric; i.e,. steady decay of radioactive isotope provides estimate in actual number of years  Relative dating: stratigraphy: study of the sequential layering of deposits  Principle of super positioning: lower layers.. deposited before the upper layers‖  Strata: layers of soil or rock. May be called ―level‖  Geological strata: formed by natural processes  Archaeological strata: formed by natural and cultural process.  IF you have something that human did that’s something from culture  Chronometric dating: (gives an age estimate in calendar years)  Most techniques make use of radiometric decay: ―a measure of the rate at which certain radioactive isotopes—[slowly breaks down] disintegrate‖  Examples for dating inorganic materials: potassium- argon (K/Ar) method, Argon-argon (40Ar/39Ar)  For dating later organic materials: radiocarbon dating – carbon -14 (14C) dating  Only works for material <1,000 yrs old- 50,000 yrs old  Dendrochronology: ―archeological dating method based on the study of yearly growth rings in ancient wood‖ = dating by tree rings  Non-radiometric technique – tree rings, core samples – use these to date the structure  Early hominins  Adaptations for bipedality: pelvis--: short, broad pelvis (laterally oriented iliac blade) , butterfly shaped– help you interpret the fossil files.  Good for stabilizing weight transmission from the spine . [weight comes from the lower back]  Homosapiens, australopith , chimp - pictures ppt  Foot: must act as a stable support instead of a grasping limb.  Big toe brought in line (abducted)with other toes  Australopith footprint – picture ppt . Longitudinal arch also formed to absorb shock and add spring  Knee: femur is angled inward, legs are more directly under body , chimps can’t  full extension of knee joint possible. We humans have special morphology.  Foramen magnum: the large hole through which the spinal cord attaches to brain positioned differently . It positioned very differently for human. Its anterior placed in humans (more forward)  Less robust neck muscles are required to hold the neck upright  Humans doesn’t have that many neck muscles like apes.  3 clusters of early hominins: 1) pre-australopiths (7-4.4 mya)  e.g.: Ardipithecus ramidus (―Ardi‖)  2) australopiths: earlier, more primitive australopiths (4.2-3.0 mya) e.g.: Australopithecus afarensis (―lucy‖)  Later more derived australopiths (2.5-1.2 mya) e.g. paranthropus  3) early homo (2.3-1.4 mya) e.g. homo habilis.  1) Pre-australopiths – sahelanthropus (6-7 mya) – small braincase, similar to modern chimp (320-280 cm3) 
More Less

Related notes for ANTA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.