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Lecture 9

Anthropology Lecture 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Joyce Parga

Anthropology Lecture 9  upper Paleolithic (~ 50,00 ya) – tools: - aurignacian – associated w/ anatomically modern humans - Chatelperronian- associated w/ some later neandertals - Gravettian – characterized by denticulate tools -> small tooth like projections on cutting edge – serrated edges more efficient for cutting - Solutrean – bifacoally – very thin tools, finely flaked all over surface , sometimes fand// - they were likely difficult to make. Leaf shaped- found broken but unused. - Magdalenian: includes elaborate use of microblades such as small boring tools for making holes in hide, there microliths could be set into wood or bone handles - Increased use of non-stone raw materials - Upper Paleolithic  Remains of a hut made of mammoth bones at Mezin (In Ukraine) - top was probably covered by animal skin  Characteristics of upper Paleolithic – more refined stone tools, especially blades  Increased use of raw materials other than stone, more varied diet  - earliest evidence of extensive use of birds and fish as game animals  Larger more permanent habitation sites/ dwellings , long distance trade of raw materials – obsidian (“volcanic glass”) found 500km from its source area!  Can make sharp tools w/it  Items of personal adornment – Magdalenian[ catch phrase to use multiple things ] necklace w/ teeth and bone pieces made into pendants and beads. E.g. lion’s tooth  Increasingly elaborate burials – Neandertals showed deliberate placement of bodies and grave goods, but the # and quality of grave goods increased in Upper Paleolithic.  Sungir [ 24,000ya ]( in Russia) – adult is adorned w/ thousands of ivory beads and carved bracelets, there was a lot of care taking. Pendant worn by one of the teenagers below , ivory disks buries w/ the teenagers  Creation of art of many types and in great abundance – Cave paintings (many in France and Spain)  Frequently depict animals (food: bison, mammoths, horses, deer; but also: bears, rhinos, lions] not sure if they were story telling or the main msg of the paintings.  Less frequently, human hand prints ( drawings of humans rare), weren’t drawing humans. Hand prints and the bear comes from Chauvet  The other ones were from Lascaux  Upper Paleolithic art: ivory plaque from site of Mal’ta , silberia (~18,000 ya) – abstract art?  Calendar? 365 pits.. 243 in centre ( representing winter? )  Venus figures/images? – representations of women – Venus of Brassempouy (From France  Many have exaggerated female sexual characteristics  Venus of Willendorf (from Austria), Venus of Dolni Vestibuce (from Czech Republic)  Increased geographic range – Australia and N. America How did people get to Australia? (~55,000 ya) There wasn’t a continuous land break. . May have crossed into Australia using bamboo rafts (from Indonesia)..  Genetic data suggest a single migration event for native Australians  “Mungo Man” – from Lake Mungo site in S. Australia – gracile features, unlike robust features of: - later occurring early humans  - modern day Australian aboriginal people  did more than one group migrate here? ( but only 1 group left descendants? ) – maybe  Maybe these robust features are a recent development?  How to explain the upper Paleolithic cultura
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