AntA01 Lecture 4 – Primates Video
Life in the Trees Video
- Take notes on locomotion patterns, can we identify this in the fossil record and what would that
look like? Look at social systems and kin group. Howler monkeys move around in family units
- Important things to have when living in trees is a pair of hands and eyes. These are
characteristics of primates which include monkeys, apes, man, and lemurs
- At first, lemurs don’t really look like monkeys (tail, etc) but its hands show that it is a primate.
- The lemur is able to walk on the ground and in the trees
- Marking lets troops leave scent of their territory
- Babies grab on to parents fur and go with parents wherever they go.
- Lemurs 40-50 million years ago both in Africa and Europe– about that time, Madagascar was
separated from Africa so that they survived from better
- Sefaca lemur – spiny forest, it is specialized in jumping, it grasps branches when landing, their
long hind legs makes walking on all fours impossible when on the ground so they walk on 2 legs
- The indrin lemur: lives in a thick canopy, uses sounds to communicate with other indrin lemurs
but do not use scent
- Brown lemurs: also use voice for communication and scent, raise tails so that other members of
troop can have visual contact of one another
- The lemurs sleep in trees
- Some lemurs are nocturnal like the mouse lemur and aiyaiy
- There are some 20 lemur species living in Madagascar
- The lores and the bush baby are other lemurs that live in other part of Africa but they had to
become nocturnal to compete with the monkeys.
- Another nocturnal animal is the tarsier which has very good eye sight
- Marmoset are other primates from south America. They eat fruit and insects but also eat gum
from gum trees
- Each territory is inhabited with one male and one female with their young. Shreiking is used to
scare off trespasser and if that doesn’t work then they display their genitals to scare then away.
- The males usually carry the young on their backs
- The grasping hands are used to pick parasites from fur
- There are 70 different species of monkeys in south America alone
- Howler Monkeys: live in tree very high at the top and sleep there. Then they begin to howl. The
most efficient way to lay claim is to scream (you can hear 5km away). They are very large –
larger ones usually have more success in fights and in reproduction but size affects how they
jump in the tree. This caused them to evolve a grasping tail. They are vegetarians and eat leaves
at the farthest edge of the branches. Their sense of smell is not that great so they sniff the fruit
really close to see if it is ripe.
- Most lemurs are colour blind however, monkeys are not and use color to determine the
ripeness of fruit and also to use as an attractive mechanism to get females. - In Africa, many species have come down to the ground (as opposed to the South American
monkeys). This may be because the African monkeys have not evolved the grasping tail so they
have not become too adapted to life in the trees.
- Baboons – they go to the ground (instead of into trees) when they sense danger. Their hands
allow them to pick rodents, insects, etc. Males keep order with visual signals (ey