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Lecture 4

AntA01 Lecture 4.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

AntA01 Lecture 4 – Primates Video Life in the Trees Video - Take notes on locomotion patterns, can we identify this in the fossil record and what would that look like? Look at social systems and kin group. Howler monkeys move around in family units - Important things to have when living in trees is a pair of hands and eyes. These are characteristics of primates which include monkeys, apes, man, and lemurs - At first, lemurs don’t really look like monkeys (tail, etc) but its hands show that it is a primate. - The lemur is able to walk on the ground and in the trees - Marking lets troops leave scent of their territory - Babies grab on to parents fur and go with parents wherever they go. - Lemurs 40-50 million years ago both in Africa and Europe– about that time, Madagascar was separated from Africa so that they survived from better - Sefaca lemur – spiny forest, it is specialized in jumping, it grasps branches when landing, their long hind legs makes walking on all fours impossible when on the ground so they walk on 2 legs - The indrin lemur: lives in a thick canopy, uses sounds to communicate with other indrin lemurs but do not use scent - Brown lemurs: also use voice for communication and scent, raise tails so that other members of troop can have visual contact of one another - The lemurs sleep in trees - Some lemurs are nocturnal like the mouse lemur and aiyaiy - There are some 20 lemur species living in Madagascar - The lores and the bush baby are other lemurs that live in other part of Africa but they had to become nocturnal to compete with the monkeys. - Another nocturnal animal is the tarsier which has very good eye sight - Marmoset are other primates from south America. They eat fruit and insects but also eat gum from gum trees - Each territory is inhabited with one male and one female with their young. Shreiking is used to scare off trespasser and if that doesn’t work then they display their genitals to scare then away. - The males usually carry the young on their backs - The grasping hands are used to pick parasites from fur - There are 70 different species of monkeys in south America alone - Howler Monkeys: live in tree very high at the top and sleep there. Then they begin to howl. The most efficient way to lay claim is to scream (you can hear 5km away). They are very large – larger ones usually have more success in fights and in reproduction but size affects how they jump in the tree. This caused them to evolve a grasping tail. They are vegetarians and eat leaves at the farthest edge of the branches. Their sense of smell is not that great so they sniff the fruit really close to see if it is ripe. - Most lemurs are colour blind however, monkeys are not and use color to determine the ripeness of fruit and also to use as an attractive mechanism to get females. - In Africa, many species have come down to the ground (as opposed to the South American monkeys). This may be because the African monkeys have not evolved the grasping tail so they have not become too adapted to life in the trees. - Baboons – they go to the ground (instead of into trees) when they sense danger. Their hands allow them to pick rodents, insects, etc. Males keep order with visual signals (ey
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