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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Evolution& Genetics Outline  History of evolution  Mechanism  Genetics  Processes  Case Study What is evolution? How does it work? -Natural selection -Change in frequency of genetics -Environmental -Sexual selection -Survival of the Fittest What is a species?  Works on population, not individual, species evolve  Group of individuals that breed and can have viable off springs off each other -Similar (deer) and variable (dogs) -May live in different parts of the world -Shared behavioral traits relating to social groups, food, reproductive strategies. (giraffes, different types wont mate) -Distinguish between members of own species and others -Where do we as humans stand? Darwin- 1859 -Religion wasn’t for him; story in bible didn’t fit with world -Collected facts and natural specimens Pre Enlightenment period  According to genesis- Adam and Eve  Everything was made in 6 days  Animals  Men  Technology History of Origins- James Ussher 1581-1656 -Origin of trd Earth & there fore humans based on this interpretation of the bible -October 23 4004BC…..9 am Geology contributes  Catastrophists  George Cuvier (1769-1832)  If only 6000 years old then global and violent catastrophes to explain canyons, mountains?  But…  Reverend burnet (1681AD) SLOW EROSION? WATER WIND AND ICE Uniformitarianism- natural processes that went on in the past still go on today  Buffon (1749 ad) to learn about the earth study the earth- processes are known, natural and observe 6 epochs  Hutton (1788ad) slow working uniform and natural processes=100000 years old  Lyell (1873 ad) 100 000 the present is the key to the past  Reverend Chalmer- Ussher was wrong not the bible Carolus Linneus (1758)  Comparative biology  Categorizing the worlds plants and animals  7 basic layers of taxon levels  Kingdom phylum class order family genus species  Binomial system  Homo sapiens (wise men)  Colonization  Identified new peoples not mentioned in the bible  Archaeology  Stone tools  Thunderstones  Or pre-metal stone ages? Early stone age handaxe Life on earth has changed  Conclusion of the enlightenment  Fossils  Extinct animals  Strata and stratigraphy  1800’s the question changed “How did the Earth/Species change?” Lamarck- First mechanism 1. Adaptation to environment- we know they eat from tall trees 2. Progression towards perfection- no end goal 3. Inheritance of acquired characteristics- Darwin & Wallace Mechanism of natural Darwins Finches- change occurs as an adaptation Change works on variation  Unfavorable variations will be weeded out What is natural selection actually acting on? -Genes How genetics works? Processes of evolution  Mutation  Genetic flow – more about frequency  Genetic drift Gregor Mendel Austria (1822-1884)  Breeding experiments with pea plants  Traits in offspring are not passed solely by either parent  Traits are passed in small independent packages from both parents  We call these packages “genes” Mendels breeding program  Cross bred green peas with green peas always green peas  Cross bred yellow peas with green peas all gr
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