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Intro to Anthropology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Introduction to Anthropology Anthropology Anthropos = Human Logos = Study Traditionally studied western people. Holistic view Cultural Anthropology = Social Anthropology Talks about diff cultures from diff parts of the world Culture: All the things that are non-genetic are aspects of human generation  Ethnography: Cross-cultural comparison  Linguistic anthropology o Language variations around the world, diff cultures use diff words Archaeology: study of material culture “stuff people make” Material culture: “Physical manifestation of human activities, such as tools, art & structures.” – Lewis et al., P.10  Prehistoric archaeology – study of non-literate cultures (beginning of history, beginning of writing)  Historic archaeology (literate archaeology, after 3000BC)  Bioarchaeology – study of biological material in context of archaeology  Cultural Resource Management: (rescuing things from destruction) “the safeguarding of archaeological heritage through protection of sites and through salvage archaeology. Designed to safeguard past”  Evolutionary Anthropology (physical or biological anthro) o Study of modern human variability (osteology, forensic anthropology, medical anthropology, molecular anthropology) o Human evolution (Paleoanthropology - fossil of human evolution, paleoprimatology – non human fossils, primatology – nonliving) Evolution “Descent with modification” – Darwin, 1859 (Change between generations) “A change in genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next” – Lewis et al., p.2  Things aren’t the same, things are always changing th Basic tenets of (19 century) Biblical Creationism Bible says Earth was created on Oct.22 4004BC a) the Earth was created by God relatively recently b) large scale changes to Earth’s surface are product of major catastrophes (catastrophism) c) living things don’t change through time (fixity of species) d) fossils can be explained away Introduction to Anthropology Uniformitarianism: “The theory that the earth’s features are the result of long- term processes that continue to operate today as they did in the past” – Lewis et al., p.25  Contrasts with catastrophism James Hutton, 1726-1797 (father of uniformitarianism)  Modeled earth as a self-regulating system  Important in developing uniformitarianism Sir Charles Lyell, 1797-1875  Wrote Principles of Geology (1830-1833)  Popularized uniformitarianism Adaptation: fit between an organism and its environment; a feature of an organism that increases the likelihood of its survival and reproduction in a particular environment Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829)  Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Giraffe, keep trying to reach higher to eat leaves therefore stretched the neck higher  Believes one generation acquires same characteristics for next generation Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)  Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) o Idea that every population has potential to outstrip food available Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Wrote on the Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871) Adaptive radiation: the evolution of multiple divergent species from a single, less specialized ancestral species  Often occur on islands (eg., the Galapagos)  Ex. “Darwin’s finches”, from the Galapagos islands o Beaks of diff finch birds Basic tenets of natural selection a) Variation exists b) That variation is heritable (tall people have tall babies) c) Some variants are better adapted to deal with their environment than others (polar bears, thicker fur better to deal with cold environment, when environment Introduction to Anthropology change and become warm thick fur may not be best) d) If left unchecked (if infinite amount or resources), every organism will produce more offspring than can survive e) More offspring of the better adapted variants will survive f) These offspring will have the adaptations of their parents g) Over time, this will lead to a change in the population to resemble the better adapted variants h) Over a long enough time frame this will produce large scale changes, including speciation Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)  On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely form the Original Type (1858) Neanderthal 1 cranium  1 human fossil to be recognized – discovered in 1856 Virchow – explained with horrible physical abnormalities (being hit on the head) or someone with horrible rickets Sept.16, 2013 Evolution Adaptation represents a fit between organism and its environment  Had to find mechanism rather than adapt Adaptive radiation: occurs when there are niches (def above) Niche: everything that an animal does (interacts, eat, role in environment) Selection  Natural selection  Artificial selection  Sexual selection (non-random mating, e.g., inbreeding) Mutation Genetic Drift  Gamete sampling  Fission  Founder effect  Evolutionary bottlenecks Introduction to Anthropology Gene flow Sexual selection: selection on features or behaviors associated with mating Generally takes 2 forms: 1) Male-male competition 2) Female choice Mutation: “A change in DNA…can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as changes in chromosome number or structure”  Only important to evolution if they occur in sex cells  The ultimate source of all variation  Ex. Sickle-cell anemia Gamete sampling: certain amount of chance in people who reproduce Fission effect  Chances in the frequency of variants in a population as a result of subdivision Founder effect  Differences infrequency of variants
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