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Chapter 13 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 13 Notes: The Meaning of Civilization: N Civilization: cultures with a food surplus, social stratification, labour specialization, rule by power, monumental construction projects, and a system of recordkeeping N New Social Structures at ~9,000ya N A consequence of the shift to food production is the development of enormous surpluses N whenever there is abundance, density, and reliability of a food source, there will inevitably be social & political complexity N Powerful rulers and chiefs (priests and warriors) emerge to control, organize, & centralize the supply & distribution of resources N this eventually leads to the development of cities, civilizations, and modern life as we know it N There are 7 categories of civilization 1. Food and Labour Surplus Food output was still low evry1 need to be involved in food gathering Improvements in farming technology by; using large animals for farming, and ZZZ}LZE} KZ}L[ZE} L[Z72K] L} L}2Z}}}}o7Zrefore allowing others to engage in other pursuits plow, draft animals, & the wheel Less people needed for food production Frees up a proportion of the population to specialize as non-food producers Artisans, merchants, soldiers, elite 2. Social Stratification Hunter-gather everyone is considered equal ( including age and sex) Paleo and many early Neolithic were egalitarian or pretty close to it Social stratification: difference in social system People born into social strata and stay there their entire lives With surplus food, requires managers and eventually elite like a pyramid, social status develops, with acknowledged differences King on top, artisans and managers in the middle, and farmers on the bottom 3. Formal Government State Society: a formal government J with ruling class controlling the populace by force
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