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Lecture 5

ANTA01 Lecture 5.docx

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Mary Silcox

thOctober 17 2011Hominini group that includes all those species more closely related to homo sapiens than to any living great ape Chimpanzees and gorillas are not homininUniquely human features o Extremely large brain Larger than you would except for something of our body size o Anatomical features associated with bipedalism walking on two limbs o Very small canines Third teeth from middlet project Bigger in males Not too potruding for humans o Relatively flat faces orthognathic Chimpanzees have upper jaws that stick out prognathic o Ability to modify raw materials into recognizable tool types Non human primates dont make recognizable tool types No stone tools that you can classify o Chin Have an actual mass of bone there unlike non human primnates o Ability to both learn and invent languageMosiac evolution Possible scenarios for human evolution y Brain first the big brain is the most distinctive human feature and must therefore have been evolving for the longest time y Bipedalism first humans began walking on their hind limbs first which freed the hands for tool use leading to brain expansion In 1908 the first group of fossils that seemed to be relevant to testing hypothesis in Piltdown Charles dawson discovered Piltdown I Sir Arthur smith woodward pierre teildhard de chardin went back to pilktdown and found fragments of fossils Also found hippos and masedons They reconstructed the fossil fragments and found an ape like jaw but had a human like brain This would have been evidence for the brain first hypothesis Surmised to have belonged to human ancestors Eoanthropus dawsoni Piltdown man Believed to be able to make tools Fossilized elephant bone for PiltdownAgain good support for brain first human evolution This material is not considered relevant to human evolution It turns out that this was a hoax Fluorine dating was used Specimens lying on the ground accumulate fluorine over time At different places there are different rates of fluorine Cannot be used for absolute dating but can be used as a relative dating tool as fossils of the same age should have the same amount of fluorine The jaw bone and the
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