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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

ANTA01H3F Understanding Humans Adaptation a feature of an organism that increases the likelihood of its survival and reproduction in a particular environment Adaptive radiation the evolution of multiple divergent species from a single less specialized ancestral species Niche the role of a species in its environment Evolutionary Processes SelectionNatural selectionArtificial selectionSexual selection nonrandom mating eg inbreedingFirst introduced by Darwin in his book Descent of Man in 1871Selection on features or behaviours associated with matingGenerally takes two forms 1 malemale competition 2 female choice MutationA change in DNA can refer to changes in chromosome number or structure Genetic Drift Random changes within smaller populationsGamete sampling Changes in the genetic material passed on to the next generation just as a result of random chance in which variants get passed onFissionChanges in the frequency of variants in a population as a result of subdivisionFounder effectDifferences in the frequency of variants in a population as a result of random chance in which members start a new populationExample one outcome of founder effect can be an increase in the relative frequency of a rare type eg a gene for a disease such as porphyriaEvolutionary bottlenecksA restriction in genetic variability with a decrease in population size
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