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Lecture 3

Lecture 3-Genetics.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 Lecture Notes Genetics What is evolution and Natural Selection working onWe know the mechanism but what are the processes and what is actually changingGenotypes ProcessesMutationGenetic flowGenetic drift Gregor MendelAustria 18221884Breeding experiments with pea plantsTraits in offspring are not passed solely by either parent o traits are passed in small independent packages from both parents o we call these packages genesfound what evolution was working onMendel Wallace and Darwin all publishing at the same time but there may have been a language barrier or else they could have come up with more theories Mendels breeding programCross bred green peas with green peasOffspring of any generation always had green peasCross bred yellow peas with green peasAll offspring plants f1 generation bore green peasCross bred green offspring plants f2 generation had green peas and some had yellow peasRation of green to yellow plants in f2 generation was always 31 F3 generationwhat would the punnet square look life if we crossedgreen YY and Green Yyeach observed trait derives from apackage of information gene acquired by the individual at conceptionFor each trait an individual processes two genes one from each parent o Two matching genes homozygous state for a give trait individual receives the same gene form from parents Green and Green o Heterozygous state Individual receives two different gene forms from parents Green and YellowThe whole set of different forms for a give gene are known as alleles o Mendels peas had alternative genes or alleles for greed seeds and for yellow seeds o Sometimes the yellow allele was expressed appeared in the plant o Sometime the green allele was expressedDominant genes always expressed in the individual who carries them such as green peasRecessive genes overpowered by a dominant gene if one is present and not expressed such as yellow peas o Recessive genes are expressed only if they are homozygous if no dominant gene is present o Recessive genes are as likely to be passed to offspring as are dominate geneseven though their presence may be unknown to the observer Independent AssortmentDuring reproduction each individual crease a gamete egg or sperm which consists of half of your genes meiosis o Probability of a gene passing on from your motherfather is 50 o Dominant genes dont have any dominance in this process recessive genes are equally likely o we cant predict which genes will be passed on Example Eye Colorgene color exists in two alleles or states o B dominant brown o B recessive blueEach parent passes on al allele in hisher gameteOffsprings genetic makeup contains al allele form each parentOffsprings outward appearance phenotype reflects the dominance of this gene pairBrown eyes BB Bb or bB
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