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Lecture 4

Lecture 4-Archealogical Methods.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 8 Archaeological Methods Methods of Studying the PastWhere Survey and SamplingWhat Archaeological recoveryWhen Relative and Absolute DatingHow Theoretical approaches and Environments and DietsWho burial context and osteological methods of identifying age at death sex health disease behaviorWhyWhere did People LiveArchaeological Sites where people lived or carried out activitiesArtifacts objects made by human handsEcofacts ecological debris remains such as animal bonesFeatures nonportable remains graves or wallsif you remove features from site it will be destroyed Ex Harps fire pits foundations of buildingsoften read soil changesgravesthe cut DFM Site Structure1600 years agoHunter Gather groupwhat kind of siteonly 2 occupation entire village10 by 10Hearthindividual family fireThe place of the hearths tell us how close ppl lived together and the number of familiesBlueash dump bones shell fishDune Field MiddenBottom part where they dump stuff the top was where they lived SurveyMorphological features sources of water clay iron ore firewood etcLocal and oral histories Troy Heinrich SchleimannFind sites where all basic needs are close byStart with map and draw circle where basic needs are closePpl walk in straight line and look for artifactsWhen you find a group of artifacts you start diggingField survey o Surface walking o Subsurface investigations o Electrical Resistivity Survey pump electricity into ground and if there is interference then there is a sub city o Proton Magnetometry looking for evidence of magnetism o Ground Penetrating Radar looking for interference with Radar SamplingLab analysis inform us on where to look and where not to lookTake samples of rocksYou compare with toolslong distance trade or local materials it tells us how advanced they are What material did they leave behindCareful excavation o Spatial contextsassociations o Provenience o AssemblageSievedSortedRecord everything for artifactstake soil sample from each layerSpatial context everything on same square equals assemblageHelps us look at spatial relationship if you labe everything
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