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Lecture 4

ANTA01 - SUMMER 2012 - LECTURE 4 - NON HUMAN PRIMATES

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Carolan Wood
Semester
Summer

Description
LEC 4 – ANTA01 – MAY 31, 2012 WHY STUDY LIVING NON HUMAN PRIMATES  GIVESONLYLIVINGMODELFORHUMANANCESTORS  MODELSEITHER  EXPERIMENTAL=PRO=SPECVARCANBECTRL  CON=IMPOSEARTIFICIALENVI  NATURALOBSERVATION  PRO=BETTERPICOFBEH,MOREREWARDING  CON=EXPENSIVE/TIMECONSUMING ORDERPRIMATES  PRIMSHARENUMBEROFTRAITSCONSIDEREDTOBESHAREDBYCOMMON ANCESTOR=ANCESTRALTRAITS  Some traits evolved + changed from common ancestor = DERIVED TRAITS  eg. Hair = DERIVED for mammals. Rel to other non mam vertebates, mam gen have hair. Hair is actually ancestral for humans. Closest rel – eg gorrillas have hair  hard to determine if trait is ancestral or derived – many ways – groupings for each.  TENDENCY FOR LARGE BRAIN – REL HEAVY IN PROP TO BODY WEIGHT  True of all primates  MORE COMPLEX BRAINS – GIVES ABILITY OF THOUGHT (GREATER)  LARGE BRAIN ACCOMODATES MORE RELIANCE ON VISION COMPARED TO MAMMAMELS AND DEXTERITY HANDS  OTHER COMMONALITIES  RELY MORE ON VISION VS SMELL  COLOUR VISION - eg. Look at tree – know when ripe and know when to eat  STEREOSCOPIC VISION – GIVES DEPTH PERCEPTION – EYES POSITIONED FORWARD = BINOCULAR –GIVES BETTER FOCUS ON OBJECTS – GIVES OVERLAPPING VISUAL FIELDS GIVES US DEPTH PERCEPTION – MORE DEV IN ANTHROPOIDS VS PERSIMEONS  GRASPING TOES AS WELL AS HANDS (OPPOSABLE BIG TOE)  FLEXIBLE LIMB STRUCTURE – WIDE RANGE OF LOCOMOTOR BEH AS PRIMATES swing trees, terrestrial quadroheads  TENDENCY TO ERECT POSTURE (EAT, SIT, LEAP, STAND)  4 legs = far faster , 2 legs, not so much but able to carry  HIGH DEV OF TACTILE PADS – helps with grip, feel way around  NAILS instead of claws –  LACK OF DIETARY SPECIALIZATION  means we’re omnivores (all kinds of food)  Tend to have dentition – far more generalized – eg. Dog teeth adapted to eating meat.  HETERODONT DENTITION – diff kinds of teeth for diff purpose LEC 4 – ANTA01 – MAY 31, 2012  Molar vs canine vs incisor  We hae a dental formula – number of each type of teeth – based on quadrant, not on maxillary or madnibular teeth  Generally – 2123 dental formula  Most primate have 2133 (2 inscor, 1 canine, 3 premolar , 3 molars) – new world monkey  Exception to 2133 rule are the hominoids – apes and humans basically  Insorocr – grab  Canine – useless for humans  Premolars – processing food  MATURATION, LEARNING, BEH –  MORE EFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENT  Tend to have fewer offspring – and longer gestation period (time to birth a fully formed baby) – put lot more time into making the baby  Delayed maturation and longer life span  Flexible and learned beh – rely less on instinct vs learning  More complex social groups  Most of us are diurnal – active in day time – most species  2 diff way to classify primates – text book use older method = prosimina dn anthropoid  prosimian – tend to resmble other animals more than anthropoids MODERN PRIMATES – SUBORDERS  PROSIMIANS – LEMUR + BUSH BABY OR GALADO,  LEMURS, LORISES, TARSIERS  Gen features:  They vary – some noctural and solitary, some diurnal and social  More rely on smell vs anthropoid . partial binocular vision (rely less on smell vs other – more so than anthropoid)  Small quadrapeds  Vertical clinging and leaping  Tend to have mobile eyes and whiskers, pointed snouts (larger snout – more rely on smell), some claws, some nails  Not much facial expression – vs chimps ALTERNATE CLASSIFICATION  PROSIMEANS into 2 other cat  Eg. TARSIER  Put all the STREPSIRHIENS – LERMUR LORISE – with wet noses = rely more on smell – most persimeans  HAPLORINES = TARSIERS + ANTHROPOIDS (monkey, ape, human)  Dry nose – reduced smell sense  Also – eyes closer together and protected by bony orbits on side  Vs persimean – open – might have post orbital bar  Placenta allows for contact b/w blood of mom and baby LEC 4 – ANTA01 – MAY 31, 2012 ANTHROIPOIDS – new world monkeys, all apes and human  Rounded brain case  Reduced non mobile ears  Small flat face  Efficient fetal nourishment (placenta) PLATYRRHINES (NEW WORLD MONKEY – N and S america) – platy means flat – flat face and nose CATARRHINES ( OLD WORLD MONKEYS – asia and africa, APE, HUMAN) – narrow nose, nostril point downward NEW WORLD – central and south America – tropical/subtropical forest  Platy – broad nose wit
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