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ANTA01H3 (417)
Lecture 3


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Carolan Wood

 GOALS  PROCEDURE  FIELDWORK  ANALYZE  RECONSTRUCT  SITE  FORMATION PROCESS (CULTURAL, NATURAL, TAPHONOMY)  RECORD  ARTIFACT  ECOFACT  FEATURE  FOSSIL LOCALE/FOSSILIZATION  SUBSURFACE TECHNIQUES  INVASIVE  NON-INVASIVE  EXCAVATION  GOALS  TYPES (VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL)  PROVENIENCE  BEFORE EXCAVATION  LOCATION  METHOD  CONTEXT (PRIMARY/SECONDARY)  SITE MAPPING  DATUM POINT  RELATIVE DATING  STRATA  BASED ON LAW OF ASSOCIATION/SUPERPOSITION  SERIATION  BIOCHRONOLOGY  CHEMICAL DATA  WHY USE RELATIVE DATING METHODS  ABSOLUTE/CHRONOMETRIC DATING  DENDROCHRONOLOGY  RADIOCARBON DATING (14C)  K-Ar DATING  SAMPLE VS EVENT DATING (PROBLEM?)  ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION  CLASSIFICATION (EMIC/ETIC)  CLASSIFICATION/ANALYSIS (SPMGAP)  TYPOLOGY  RECONSTRUCTING SUBSISTENCE AND DIET  BIO ANTHRO  PALEOETHNOBOTANY  GOALS  Reconstruct description of human culture sequence,  Reconstruct past life ways (hard to interpret)  Explain why culture changes happen or not happen  Know how arc record forms  PROCEDURE  FIELDWORK (plan, survey, excavate, record, recover)  ANALYZE (identify, measure, classify)  RECONSTRUCT (describe, explain life in past)  SITE (has the remains of previous human activity – bones, garbage, many remains = concentrations of evidence). Not just material but could be handprints as well  FORMATION PROCESS  CULTURAL – deliberate/accidental human activity – humans discard/lose things, caching, ritual internment  NATURAL – weathering (sediment accum by wind, water etc. water is strongest in weathering, root growth tends to disperse things, burrowing animals, erosion and gravity)  TAPHONOMY – burial laws – greek for death/burial – processes b/w death of life and discovery of the same body by an arc  How arg become part of fossil record – need to know types of loss/info and intensity of loss of info  Eg. Burial near river bank – water action could sweep it to another place or erod body  In relation to fossil – in caves, large accum in bones  Maybe from human activity? But it’s actually carnivores  LOCATING  INTENTIONAL – arc survey, ground survey – just to walk around, aerial photo, satellite imging found temples in central America in the jungle  ACCIDENTAL – construction, agriculture, earthquake  RECORD (all past material remains of that site)  ARTIFACT (any item, object, manufactured/altered/modded by humans. Usually portable – stone point, ceramic, coins, glass bottle)  ECOFACT – (natural object consumed/affected/unmodded by humans – bones, teeth, shells, seeds, pollen, sediments, jaw bone)  FEATURE – (non portable artifacts – barrial mounds, stone wall, hearth, building, irrigation ditch, rock pile, midden, trees marked by 1 nations – component modded by humans, collection of rocks)  FOSSIL LOCALE – (remains of life preserved in rocks – bones, teeth, impression, foot print, eggs, worm burrows, termite nests, plant tissues)  FOSSILIZATION – (minerals replace bio organic content of material dependent on soil chem., temp, water lvl, bacteria)  SUBSURFACE TECHNIQUES  INVASIVE –  test pit – small excavation around 30x30cm – determines extent of site, recover sample of artifacts. Age? Cultural affiliation  shovel shining – flat shovel scraps top layer of soil – exposed undisturbed layers, soil colour and composition  GRADE OFF - Use of machine to take small portions off  NON-INVASIVE  Ground penetrating radar, magnetic/electric resistance – all work with ultrasound  EXCAVATION – systematic recovery of arc data from buried contexts  GOALS  1. Reveal 3d pattern of art/eco/features  2. Assess functional/temporal signififance of patterning  want to see settlement patterns, not just what’s there but where it is in relation to other things  TYPES  VERTICAL – penetrating – reveals depth and sequence of arc deposits  HORIZONTAL – clearing – reveal horiz extent of arc deposits  PROVENIENCE – precise 3d location of art/eco etc – in time/space  Eg. Association and superposition  BEFORE EXCAVATION (permission – local govt, native grps, land owners, what questions need to be answered?)  LOCATION (random grid units/planned, specific feature, depends on research goal)  METHOD (by hand using shovel/trowel. Natural vs arbitrary levels – topsoil, sand, clay vs going down in 10 cm increments – depends on soil nature)  EQUIPMENT (dental picks, trowels, shovels and machinery, depends on type of site excav. Diff mesh sizes for screen – water vs dry screening)  CONTEXT  PRIMARY – in place where it was used – in original undisturbed place  SECONDARY – in place where it was
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