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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

Lecture 1 September 12, 2011  Evolution does not rely solely on a particular mechanism or praceess  Smallest unit of time in which evolution occurs is a generation  Niche: role of a species in its environment o (eg) Galapos Island Evolutionary Processes  Selection: o Natural selection o Artificial selection  Selection by humans for favorable traits o Sexual selection  Selection on feathers or behavior associated with mating  Generally takes two forms:  Male-male competition (eg. Bighorn sheep headbutting)  Female choice (eg. Female bower bird inspecting a bower)  Male choice is not very important because sperm is CHEAP. o Non-random mating more associated with humans  Example: Inbreeding: Charles II of Spain  Mutation: “A change in DNA can refer to change in DNA bases as well as changes in chromosome # or structure o It’s the ultimate source of variation  Genetic Drift: o Random changes o Not due to selection o Mostly affects small population o Gametic Sampling: Changes in the genetic material passed on the next generation just as a result of random chance in which variants get passed on. o Fission effect: changes in the frequency of variants in a population as a result of subdivision  Could be the first step in process of speciation o Founders effect: differences in the frequency of variants in a population as a result of random chance in which members start a new population  Ex. One outcome of founders effect can be the increase in the relative frequency of a rare type (eg. A gene for a disease such as porphyria)  Ex. Jansz family carried genes for porphyria o Bottleneck effect: restriction in genetic variability w a decrease in population size  Decrease in population because something catastrophic (eg. Tsunami)  Population that have less variability are more likely or at risk of extinction  150 000 years ago, humans underwent bottleneck effect o Geneflow: exchange of genes between population  Reduction of gene variability (WH
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