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ANTA01H3 (417)
Lecture

ASTA01 CHEAT SHEET.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Field view the area visible in an image usually given as the diameter of the region Solar system the Sun and its planets asteroids comets and so on Scientific notation the system of recording very large or very small numbers by using the powers of 10 Supercluster a cluster of galaxy clusters Planet a nonluminous body in orbit around a star large enough to be spherical and to have cleared its orbital zone of other objects Star a globe of gas held together by its own gravity and supported by internal pressure which generates energy by 8nuclear fusionAU Average distance from Earth to the Sun 15 x 10 km Galaxy a large system of stars star clusters gas dust and nebulae orbiting a common center of mass Milky Way the hazy band of light that circles our sky produced by the glow of our galaxy Spiral arms long spiral pattern of bright stars star clusters gas and dust Spiral arms extend from the center to the edge of the disk of spiral galaxies Constellation one of the stellar patterns identified by name usually of mythological gods people animals or objects Also the region of the sky containing that star pattern Asterism a named grouping of stars that is not one of the recognized constellations Magnitude scale the astronomical brightness scale The larger the number the fainter the star Apparent visual magnitude M a measure of the brightness of a star as seen by human eyes on Earth flux a measure of vthe flow of energy out of a surface Usually applied to light Celestial sphere an imaginary sphere of very large radius surrounding Earth to which the planets stars sun and moon seem to be attached Scientific model a concept that helps you think about some aspect of nature without necessarily being true Precession the slow change in orientation of the Earths axis of rotation One cycle takes nearly 26000 years Horizon the circular boundary between the sky and Earth Zenith the point in the sky directly above the observer Nadir the point on the celestial sphere directly below the observer the opposite of the zenith North and South Celestial Poles the points on the celestial sphere directly above Earths north and south poles Celestial equator the imaginary line around the sky directly above Earths equator North south east and west points the four cardinal directions the points on the thhorizon in those exact directions Angular distance the angle formed by lines extending from the observer to two locations in the sky Arc minute 160 of a degree Arc second th160 of an arc minute Angular diameter the angle formed by lines extending from the observer to opposite edges of an object Circumpolar constellation any of the constellations so close to the celestial poles that they never set or never rise from a given location Rotation motion around an axis passing through the rotating body Revolution orbital motion about a point located outside the orbiting body Ecliptic the apparent path of the Sun around the sky Vernal equinox the place on the celestial sphere where the Sun crosses the celestial equator moving northward Also the beginning of spring Summer solstice the point on the celestial sphere where the sun is at its most northerly point Also the beginning of summer Autumnal equinox the point where the sun crosses the celestial equator going southward Also the beginning of autumn Winter solstice the point on the celestial sphere where the Sun is farthest south Also the beginning of winter Perihelion the orbital point of greatest distance from the sun Solar eclipse the event that occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the Sun blocking your view from the sun Umbra the region of a shadow that is totally shaded Penumbra the portion of a shadow that is only partially shaded Annular eclipse a solar eclipse in which the solar photosphere appears around the edge of the Moon in a bright ring or annulus Features of the solar atmosphere cannot be seen during and annular eclipse Lunar eclipse the darkening of the moon when it moves through the earths shadow Saros cycle An 18y 11 13 day period after which the pattern of lunar and solar eclipses repeats Declination the angular distance of an object on the celestial sphere measured northor southfrom the celestial equator Right ascension the angular eastwest distance of an objext on the celestial spher
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