Anthropology – Lesson 6
Midterm: everything until next week is in midterms. There will not be an essay question. You must know how to spell
skeleton parts or terms in this course. Spelling is not an issue if it is not terms in this midterm. It is on October 29 . Must
have pencil and ID. TA set up room and cannot enter until after 10:15. Tutorials are covered in exams.
More closely related to us than our closest primate relatives. Hominini is the formal name. They are things that are more
closely related than chimpanzees. Series of things that may be ancestry.
Large brain – on average, larger brain than other animals and humans have largest brain
2 limbs – chimps or apes can only do it for short time. Humans – this is our locomotion
Small canines -- 3 tooth from midline. Chimps are significantly longer
Flat faces – stare at human in side view), there is pretty much a line. Ape’s jaw/mouth stick out. (prognathic)
Ability to modify raw materials – ancestors use tool, or modify by taking a twig and making it sharper. Rocks
were not modified.
Chin – lower jaw in human in side view, there is a lump at lower jaw. Distinctive human features.
Languages – no non-human organism developed a complex language system.
These are things to look for to determine if it is a hominin. They did not evolve all at once. There must be some order to
2 Possible scenarios for human evolution
Brain first: evolution of a large brain. b/c it is the most outstanding feature of humans, it is the first thing that evolved
1908 – discovered part of skull in poiltdown in England. Discovered Charles Dawson. He came across human
skull and took it to Author Smith Woodward and Pierre Teilhard Chardin. They were very interested. In 1912,
they found more skull fragments. Suggested that we had ancient ancestor. Materials were put together and
shows a ape-like jaw but a large human brain, and has canine. This supports brain first’s hypothesis b/c it is ape
with an enlarge brain
Argued to make tools. They used elephant bone as tools. But we are unsure b/c It looks like a British bat
Flourine dating (1953) – absorbed into bones through time (useless as absolute dating b/c amount varies from
place to place. It is a relative dating technique). When something is buried, picks up fluorine water from the
found. More = older.
Orangutan jaw had different fluorine amount (it is very modern). Orangutan had relatively high level of teeth
Martin A.C Hilton (1996) – trunk was found in British museum and it contained bones that contained stains that
That supposed evidence does not support this idea.
This method was rejected due to humans walking on 2 feet but the brain is still tiny
Walking on 2 feet: free hands to make tools rather than walk on it.
No evidence is provided that they used tools first Monday, October-15-12
3 clusters of early hominins
Pre-australopiths – controvertial in interpretation. Not all may be related to humans b/c it is extremely primitive
Primitive Australopiths – they are hominins for sure. Endless arguing if they are direct ancestory
Derived Australopiths – broad general consensus that they are not direct ancestor (robusts were extinct)
45% complete skeleton. Very firmly dated within 3 meters of tough deposit (ash deposit of volcano. Used argon
dating. It is 4.4 mil years old)
Found basically flat skull and required huge construction to de-flaten.
Small brain (300-350 cubic centimeters). Our brains are 1000 – 2000 cc.
Feature linked to walking on 2 feet
Foramen magnum – big hole in the skull that allows to have brain and spinal cord to connect. Refer to ppt pg 21.
It is not as far anterior as a modern human, but not as outward as a wolf or 4 legged animal. Positioning of
foramen magnum allows you to figure out if it is 4 legged or 2 legged
Pelvic bones – bone connects top part to bottom part. Every time we step, there it a tendency for our body to
top over. Ramidus, their body sways side to side as you walk and it is energetically costly. H