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Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture

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Victor Barac

CULTURE & ECONOMICS OVERVIEW Adaptive strategy Termed by Cohen in 1960s Looks at how humans survive in their environments Also known as a subsistence strategy Adapt = to fit in; subsist = to livestaystand How do people make a living and stand in society? 1. Huntinggathering foraging 2. Horticulture 3. Intensive Agriculture 4. Pastoralism 5. Industrial food production Economic systems 1. Production 2. Distribution 3. Exchange 4. (Consumption) 1. Foraging Huntinggathering Based on a strategy of hunting food from the wild 1. Food foraging a complex adaptation Very complex adaptation which involves sophisticated knowledge and tools Was dominant mode of human subsistence All societies everywhere were hunter and gatherers, our biological make up evolved from that conditionadaptive strategy Has been the most successful human adaptive strategy in terms of how long it has been around For many groups, males tend to be the hunters (was cross cultural rule), women specialize in gathering People have developed a type of diet that draw from many levels, a diverse diet Studies show that huntersgatherers have a life expectancy that is comparable to people in industrialized and modern societies, tend to be quite healthy people 2. Mostly nomadic lifestyle o Most hunters and gatherers forage an area until the resources become depleted, then move to another o Some foragers were not nomadic o Its usually groups who were able to find a food resource that was reliable all year round, those groups were able to settle down and maintain a nomadic lifestyle 3. Low population densities 4. Families, bands o Are primary social organization o Bands = groups of relativesrelated families who tend to hunt and gather together o Have flexible organization, people are free to come enroll
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