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Horatio Morgan

10/01/2013 TO BEE OR NOT TO BE Lecture 1 NROC34H3 Neuroethology Neuroethology: objectives Learning Objectives Assignment learning objectives • In this course you will •In the two video assignments explore the neural basis of you will observe, describe and behaviour and how the analyze behaviour scientific process is used to •The poster assignment will discover it. Assignments and encourage critical reading and lectures provide analysis of the methods used in opportunities for: neuroethology •Observing and analyzing •The exams (midterm and final) behaviour will test your understanding of •Developing your skills in the the material, your ability to apply critical reading of primary the knowledge and to propose literature in neuroethology new experiments •Developing your analytical •The critical review of an article skills to be able to propose will assess your ability to experiments understand the primary literature and methods used in neuroethology. (C) 2012 K.D. Williams- UTSC To bee or not to be •Neurobiology and levels of analysis •Honey bee foraging •Developmental difference nurses and foragers •A look at foraging controls 1 10/01/2013 Levels of analysis in Neurobiology •Alcock’s paraphrase of Niko Tinbergen’s questions: 1. “How does the behaviour promote an animal’s ability to survive and reproduce? 2. How does an animal use its sensory and motor abilities to activate and modify its behaviour patterns? 3. How does an animal’s behaviour change during growth, especially in response to the experiences it has while maturing? 4. How does an animal’s behaviour compare with that of other closely related species, and what does this tell us about the origins of its behaviour and the changes that have occurred during the history of the species?” th Alcock J. 2010 An Evolutionary Approach to Animal Behavior. 9 Ed. Sinauer Publishing Division of labour •The reproductive division of labour is the primary division in bee colonies: Queen and Worker. •Within the worker caste there is a further division of labour: Nurse & forager. •Within these age castes similar age individuals perform similar jobs for a period of time Robinson 1992 Ann Rev Entomol. 37:637-65 Toth & Robinson 2007 Trends in Genetics 23:334 Bee basics: Haplodiploidy 2 10/01/2013 Division of labour among bees Ben- Shahar 2005 J. Comp. Physiol. A 191:987-994 Observing Division of Labour Johnson 2010 Behav Ecol Sociobiol 64:305-316 Nurse or Forager •Temporal polyethism • Nurses (5-9 days): identified by bees that dipped their heads into a comb cell harbouring a larva • Foragers (28-32 days): were identified by blocking the nest entrance and collecting those bees returning with pollen loads Ben- Shahar 2005 J. Comp. Physiol. A 191:987-994 3 10/01/2013 Sensing a target in space: foraging • Methods in neuroethology • Neuroanatomical basis of the behaviour • Physiological basis of the behaviour • Quantitative analyses of the behaviour • Neuroanatomical work on foraging in bees showed: • Bee brain important • Some regions of bees’ brain change in volume with the transition from nurse to forager: the mushroom bodies increase in volume and this increase is related to the change in behaviour not age. • (Withers et al. 1993 Nature 364: 238-240; Durst et al.1994 Behav. Neural Biol. 62:259-263; reviewed in Capaldi et al. 1999 Ann. Rev. of Psychology 50:651 ). Bee arrays • Dissected bee brains • Microarrays made from bee brains • Arrays covered 40% of bee genome (about 5500 genes) Whitfield et al. 2003 Science 302: 296 / http://www
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