- European Social Anthropology and American Cultural Anthropology developed
separately but belonged since 1950s.
- British Social anthropology focussed on
= Organize life in groups.
= Concept of society - associate with others and from social groups.
= Exploring relationships (husband and wife, parents and children etc)
= Social institutions (religion, economy, politics etc)
- American cultural anthropology focussed on
= Concept of cultural - way people express views and their world in symbolic
forms (art and myths).
- Both the concepts often converged and complemented one another (e.g kinship - both
social and also meaning values and beliefs)
- Modern cultural anthropology origin and developed from ethnology - organize
comparison of human societies uses secondary data to compare by asking the traders
and other people like missionaries and explorers who have interacted with the people
you want to know about.
- These were called Armchair anthropologists.
- Ethnography is both research and product of that research that tells us about particular
culture or society.
- Enlightenment- renewed focus on science and rationality, new scientific
inventions taking place. It was the early beginning of anthropology. - British ethnologist Sir Edward Burnett
= Pioneer of anthropology as a discipline.
= Also said that culture and not biology made distinctions between people
= “C”ulture vs “c”ulture
= All humankind has the ability to culture (psychic unity of humankind).
- American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan
= 3 stages of cultural development
= Based on the concept that all people will travel along the same evolutionary
- Europeans were considered to be the civilized ones(so the circles) and non-europeans
were categorized in the lower two levels.
- Judging the beliefs and behaviors of other culture based in the standards of our own
cultural beliefs and practices.
- Tendency to view one’s own culture as “natural”, “correct” and “superior” to others.
1920s - 1940s
- Emergence of modern anthropology , they went out and did the field work.
- Anti-colonial independence movements - also WW1 and WW2 during that era.
- Developed respect for cultural difference.
- Founder of American 4-field anthropology and historical particularism. - Rejected unlinear cultural evolution.
- He argued each particular culture has its own evolutionary path.
- Most famous anthropologist.
- Mostly of her research on gender and sexuality.
- She agued that gender roles in different cultures are different.
- Often referred as father of field work and also the founder of British Anthropology.
- He believed that anthropologist should go beyond ethnocentrism and see the native’s
point of view.
- Functionalist: how social institutions function to satisfy human needs (e.g. magic)
- British anthropologist.
- Structural functionalism: society as organism, society can be broken down into
different parts which has specific functions.
- All the part of the society have to work harmoniously and if one part breaks down other
become weak and break down eventually.
- View that behaviors and beliefs of a culture should not be judged by the standards of
- To understand another culture fully, you need to see how people in that culture see
things. - Difference between methodological relativism and moral relativism.
- Relativism as a method does not prevent anthropologists from making moral
judgements or advocating human rights violat