- Biological:focusses on human biological diversity in time and space.
- Archeological:studies material remains to interpret and describe the cultural patterns.
- Socio-cultural: study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes,
analyzes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. It is
particularly concerns with exploring cultural adaptations.
- Linguistic: This field of anthropology mainly looks at the study of different languages
and its use.
- City building: Some people doing a particular work and other people doing another
work to mutually benefit each other.
- All humans have certain biological processes necessary for them such as eating,
sleeping, sexual relations but what differs is how these biological processes are
carried out and that is determined by the culture you belong to.
- Anthropology is about “making the strange familiar and the familiar strange”
- It developed historically as study of other cultures.
- It also served to help Europeans question and think more critically about their own
- Latin: Cultura - “Cultivation” - Culture is the implied process of improvement or betterment of the individual,
especially through education. E.g. the European Grand Tour.
- Initially in Europe, those with culture were deemed civilized.
- Those lacking culture were seen as uncivilized and “living in a state of nature”.
- Non-europeans were considered to be lacking “culture”. They thought that the non-
europeans were seen as not capable (physically and mentally) as being cultured.
- Although things have changed now and people have started believing that we are not
born into a culture , we have to be taught a culture.
- Humans share “society” with other animals but culture sets them apart.
- All humans have the capacity of culture.
- Some specific features (such as incest taboo) are share by all people.
- Some cultural features such as nuclear family are shared by many societies but not by
- Some cultural features are very specific and unique to particular societies( e.g.
- what people of a particular culture think , believe, know and interpret.
- Explicit knowledge(conscious) - things which we follow with full awareness e.g. laws.
- Implicit knowledge(unconscious) - things which we follow without any conscious
awareness e.g. language rules.
BEHAVIOUR: - Things that we act, do or react.
- It can be verbal or non verbal e.g. communication, greetings, eating etc.