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Lecture 3

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ANTA02 Lecture3 AppliedAnthropology - It used anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary problems. Examples: Development Anthropology, Marketing, Spying, Military Intelligence. MurkyEthicsofAppliedAnthropology - Early applications - Application central concern of early anthropology in Great Britain and US. - Malinowski advocated that “practical anthropology” could be used in governing the colonies. - Contemporary military applications - During WW2, number of Americans anthropologists studies Japanese and German culture. - CORDS(Civil Operations and Revolutionary development support) during Vietnam War. - Human terrain program in Iraq and Afghanistan has used applied anthroplogy for its functions. - All this programs have taken the criticism that they break the ethics. - AAA disapproves of the Human terrain. DevelopmentAnthropology - Branch of applied Anthropology focussed on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of economic development. - development help plan and guide policy. - Foreign aid does not go where it is most usually needed. - Planners interests do not always coincide with the best interests of the local. CulturallyappropriateMarketing Work that the anthropologists do: - Making standardized brands and products to different culture groups. - Each time companies like McDonald expand into a different nation it must devise culturally appropriate strategy. - Initially Brazilian ad campaign failed in a culture that values large leisurely lunches. - So the anthropologists found that Sunday evening would be appropriate for cultures like this where the cooks take a day off on sundays.The ad campaign was successful after this. TheStructureOfLanguage WHATISLANGUAGE? - Language and culture are like two sides of a coin. Language is a part of culture but also a tool through which culture is communicated. - Language makes human differ from other animals. Human language has full developed language that contains grammar, syntax and speech which the other animals lack. - It is used for communicating cultural ideas and symbolic from one generation tot he other and also generate new cultural ideas. - logic of culture = logic of its language (how it orders and classifies the world). UNIVERSALGRAMMAR - Noam Chomsky (linguist) argues that human brain contains a limited set of rules (universal grammar) for organizing language , so that all languages have a common structural basis. All have similar linguistic ability and thought process. NONVERBALCOMMUNICATION - Language (spoken and written) is our primary means of communication. - Kinesics is the study of non-verbal communication through body movements, stances, gestures and expressions. They convey information and meaning and status. e.g playing poke. - Non-verbal communication varies across cultures just as language does. - Its not just the body language that conveys information. - Clothing is also considered non-verbal communication. Evolutionoflanguage NON-HUMANANDPRIMATECOMMUNICATION(GORILLASANDCHIMPS) - They have call-systems. They are similar to langu
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