- How are male/females roles similar different cross culturally?
- Female labor predominated in domestic activities and child care
- Women tend to be main caregivers of child care compared to men
-More by Men 16, Roughly Equal 61, More by women 23.
- Who does most domestic work?
- Males do virtually none 51
- Males do some but roughly done by females 49
- Gender socially constructed, and societies may recognize more than two genders or
allow for a shifting of gender status
- Examples include labels such as "transgender", " intersex", "third gender" and
- Certain social requirements require individuals to switch or change genders
- E.g., Eunuch, Hijras (india), "sworn virgins" (Balkans), Berdache/Two Spirit (north
America), Fakaleitis (Tongo), mahu (Hawaii) Same-SexMarriage
- Transgender and same-sex marriage among the Nuerof Sudan
- Woman may marry a woman if father has no sons
- Daughter will stand as a son and take a wife
- Daughter becomes socially recognized husbands of another woman
- Marriage is symbolic and social rather than sexual.
- Serves social function of extending the patrilineage (the father's line).
- Individuals may or may not contrast biologically with ordinary males and females
- Also includes people who's gender identity has no apparent biological roots-social-
cultural determination not biology.
- Sense of self contradicts assigned biology at birth and or its associated gender norms
- Is it increasingly acceptable for sex and gender to be recognized as an achieved rather
than ascribed status?
- conditions involving a discrepancy between external genitals and internal genitals.
- XX:chromosome of woman and normal ovaries, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, but the
external genitals appear male.
- XY:chromosomes of a man but external genitals incompletely formed, ambiguous, or
- TrueGonadal: has both ovarian and testicular tissue. - X0,XXY,XYY,XXX--> unusual chromosome combinations (either missing or having
extra) do not effect genitalia but can produce problems with sex hormone levels and
overall sexual development.
- the culturally constructed categorization of people into groups based on physical
characteristics. (Biological concept)
- Races, as discrete biological categories, do not exist.
- However, race is a meaningful social category with very real social consequences -
- social classification used to create groups based on cultural features, such as
religions, language, dress, food, family, and art. (more of cultural concept)
- The two words of often used interchangeably.
- www.understandingrace.com --> Global Census
PROBLEMSWITHRACECONCEPT - Classificationsbasedonphenotypenotgenotype: evident traits - raise problem of deciding
which trait(s) should be primary - arbitrary and vary between societies.
- Racesarenotbiologicallydistinct. Nothing can separate people from white to black
· Most (85-94%) of genetic variations is found within populations rather than
· "Races" vary from each other in only about 6% of their genes - why? * Because
we all have evolved from same hereditary ancestor.
· The greatest physical and genetic diversity among humans is among the people
live in Africa today.
· Terms do not accurately describe skin color- some African people like the San
have relatively light skin. Some aboriginal Australians have dark skin, blond,
- Phenotypicalcharacteronwhichracesarebasedarenotalwayscausedbybiology.Changes in
height and weight can produce dietary differences rather than genetics.
· Since all humans originated in Africa, we all share that genetic history
· Contemporary Non-Africans are not genetically distinct from Africans, but
descent from them
· The Sane are recognized as one of the oldest human groups (biologically and
· The Same are one of 14 known "ancestral populations (from which all know
modern humans descended).
· One broad study of African genetic diversity completed in 2009 found that the
Sam people were among the five populations with the highest measured levels of
genetic diversity among the 121 distinct African populations sampled. FromClassificationtoExplanation
- Biological differences are real, important and apparent to us all
- Modern scientists find it most production to seek explanations for diversity rather than
to create systems of classification
- Explanation of differences in Skin color?
- Racism: discriminations against such a group based on observed physical
- Internalized Racism: When a discriminated person/ gro