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Lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough

ANTA02 Lecture10 TheWorldSystem:FromcolonizationtoGlobalization THEWORLDCAPITALISTSYSTEM - World System Theory Single: single social system based on production for makret exchange, profit maximization, and economic growth. - Based on wealth and power differentials. - Characterized by spread of industrial capitalist world economics since 15th century. - Core, Semi-periphery and Periphery. GLOBALIZATIONASSYSTEMATICCONNECTEDNESS - Globalization refers to processes of increasing systematic connectedness. - Global connectedness is not new itself. What is new is: 1) Spread of global communication. 2) Scale of Global networks. 3) Volume of international transactions. WHATISGLOBALIZATION? - Globalization as fact: the spread in connectedness - production, communication, technologies etc. - GLOBALIZATION as ideology and policy - efforts to expand the capitalist world system based on free market principles.(IMF, WB, WTO etc) - Often resisted through processes and practices of anti-globalization or localization. GLOBALIZATION:SCAPESANDFLOWS - Arun Appadurai: characterizes present world as a “translocal”, “interactive system” that is “strikingly new”. - Postmodern: blurring and breakdown of established cannons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries. - Appadurai’s five dimensions of global cultural flows: 1) Ethnoscapes 2) Mediascapes 3) Technoscapes 4) Financescapes 5) Ideoscapes THEGREATTRANSFORMATION - Anthropologist Karl Polanyi states that the history of the last 500 years can be understood as a competition between two ideologies, the will to improve and the will to protect. OriginsoftheWorldSystem:ThewilltoImprove - 1600: the verb ‘to improve’ first use to refer to increasing the rental and sale value of agricultural land. - to generate profit. - 1650: expanded to include technological change to increase productivity of land - new framing techniques - linked to idea of scientific progress and advancement. - 1700: Improvement as “intervention philosophy” seen as the purpose of government and “the white man’s burden”. Justifies conquest and colonialism. FEUDALISM,COMMONPROPERTYANDTHEOPENFIELDSYSTEM - The farmers would work in common lands and farm each strip of land, but the whole land was not owned by any particular person or people.
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