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Lecture 11

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Lecture 11 August 1, 2013 Chapter 13: From World System: From Colonization to Globalization The World Capitalist System  World System theory: single social system based on production for market exchange, profit maximization, and economic growth.  Made up for three primary categories: Core: industrialized that were producing consuming goods. Periphery: Less development, cheap labour and raw materials.  Based on wealth and power differentials  Characterized by spread of industrial capitalist world economic since 15th century.  Core, Semi-periphery and Periphery. Globalization as Systematic Connectedness  Globalization refers to processes of increasing systematic connectedness  Global connectedness is not new in itself. What is new is:  1) Speed of Global Communication  2) Scale of Global Networks.  3) Volume of international transactions What is Globalization?  Globalization as fact: the spread in connectedness - production, communication, technologies, etc.  Globalization as ideology and policies - efforts to expand the capitalist world system based on free market principles (IMG, WB, WTO, etc)  Often resisted through processes and practices of anti-globalization or localization. Globalization: Scapes and Flows  Arjun Appadurai: characterizes present world as "translocal", "interactive system" that is "strikingly new"  Postmodern: blurring and breakdown of established cannons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries  Appadurai's five dimensions of global cultural flows: 1. Ethnoscapes : increasing flow and movement of people, flow and mixing for people 2. Mediascapes: media images including TV, radio and internet 3. Technoscapes: spread of technology 4. Financescapes: movement in finances and money 5. Ideoscapes: flow of ideas and ideology, The Great Transformation  Anthropologist Karl Polanyi states that the history for the last 500 years can be understood as a competition between two ideologies, the will to improve and the will to protect. Origins of the World System: The Will to Improve  1600 - the verb "to improve" first use to refer to increasing the rental and sale value of agricultural land - to generate profit  1650 - expanded to include technological change to increase productivity of land - new farming techniques - linked to idea of scientific progress and advancement  1700 - Improvement as "intervention philosophy" seen as the purpose of government and "the white man's burden" . Justified conquest and colonialism. Feudalism, Common Property and the Open Field System  Open Field System: Where entire community will farm in open community rather than each farmer having their own land. Very complex system. The Will to Improve: Enclosure  Enclosure: transformation of common property into private property  Under enclosure, common lands are fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more owners.  Initiated in 1500s in England  Enclosure created "land" as a commodity with exchange value - could be bought and sold for profit  Feudalism replaced by capitalism - private property and market exchange.  Landscape change could enhance value - clearing forest, draining marshes/swamps.  Poor people displaced from land - rural - urban migration and created cheap labour for factories. The Will to Improve : Progress  Idea of Improvement expanded to include technological change and experimentation  Classical ideas of cyclical time replaced by notion of linear time and unlimited growth  Improvement and progress applied not just to nature, but to human society as well.  Plough was also an important development in agricultural. Manufacturing Ind
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