Class Notes (809,259)
Canada (493,596)
Anthropology (1,561)
ANTA02H3 (375)

ANTA02 - Lectures 2-4

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Sandra Bamford

Day 2: Anthropology October 25, 2013 8:13 PM Anthropology is… Study of Human beings, Human nature, Human society -To what degree are human beings alike and different from one another. -To discover what all human beings have in common, and what differences have developed from this common baseline -Used to be the study of non-western societies Examples of anthropologist work: -Peasant communities -Urban settings -Multinational corporations -Non-Western societies What makes anthropology different from other similar studies? -It attempts to draw other disciplines together In order to understand what it is to be human, you must understand many other topics such as biology, etc Anthropology is holistic: -Holism is a perspective on the human condition that assumes that the mind and body, individuals and society, and individuals and the environment interpenetrate and even define one another. -Anything that can shed light on the human condition Anthropology is comparative: -It is necessary to look at data from many places across the globe. -Anthropology considers similarities and differences in wide range of human societies (both past and present) in addition to what makes us similar to and different from other species. Subdisciplines of Anthropology: -Archaeology: -Attempts to reconstruct and analyze ancient ways of life -Concerned with social process; how society has changed through time -Specializes in reconstruction and analysis of past cultures. -Biological Anthropology (Physical) -Looks at human beings as biological organisms -Attempts to discover what characteristics that make human beings different from other living organisms -Biological transformations -Physical evolution; how human beings evolved through time -How are we similar to and similar to our closest living ancestor which is the family of great apes. -Linguistics -Reconstruction of ancient languages -The study of human languages -Examines how languages change through time, as well as how they are related to their cultural setting -Many are also concerned about whether or not our ability to use language says something about the brain; universal feature. -Language differences reflect worldviews -Language differences reflect worldviews -Speech reflects social relations -Culture/Social Anthropology -Comparative study of cultures and societies -Examines how variation in beliefs and behaviors is shaped by being a member of a particular society. -There are many anthropologists that work exclusively in western societies. Methods of Socio-cultural anthropology: -Fieldwork: Involves a period of close association with the people in whose language or way of life the anthropologist is interested in. -Day to day participation in the lives of the people you are working with -Participant Observation: This involves living as closely as possible with the people whose culture the anthropologist is interested in studying and participating in their lives as much as possible. -Most anthropologists will remain at the place of study for a year or more Culture Shock: -Refers to the feeling of disorientation, akin to panic, that develops in people living in an unfamiliar society when they cannot understand what is happening around them. -The encounter is also equally strange from the other side. Cultural differences can seem very bizarre from both sides. Culture: -Shared, learned, accumulated experience. -Socially transmitted patterns of behavior characteristic of a given society. -That complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by human beings as a member of a given society. -One of the difficulties in analyzing culture is that we are often unaware of cultural patterns. -Everything we do, see, and hear is first filtered through the screen of culture. Ethnocentrism: -To view other people’s behaviour in terms of our own cultural categories is called ethnocentrism. -The opinion that one’s own way of life is ‘natural’, ‘correct’, and indeed, the only true way of being human. Cultural Relativism: -Entails understanding another culture in its own terms so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living. -To understand how the world might make sense from the others’ eyes. Culture Shock Film (First Contact): -Australian prospectors looking for gold first encountered the papua new guineans -Australians sought to bring civilization to them (1920), missionaries, etc -1926, gold was discovered Day 3: Cultural Relativism October 25, 2013 8:17 PM Cultural Relativism -Entails understanding another culture in its own terms so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living. -Strive to understand what is shared among a given people, those rules and common understandings which allow us to interact. -Anthropologists want to know what is the shared rules/understandings of social life between the people -People have expectations of certain behaviour based on their culture Emic Analysis -Understand culture as a system of rules that govern behaviour -’Natives own perceptions, thoughts and values -Examines how patterns of thinking in a particular culture are governed by conscious and unconscious rules. Etic Analysis -Rules may serve as guidelines for behaviour, but don’t fully determine it. -People often break their own rules, or can’t elucidate a rule to account for their actions. -Etic analysis is based on data derived from actually occurring behavioral observation. Types of Anthropological Writings Ethnography - A description of a particular society. Ethnology - A comparative study of many societies. Compared to ethnology, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have produced and then compares and contrasts different cultures. To try and discern any broad patterns that can explain behaviours. Anthropological Fieldwork -(Malinowski, Boas and the Decline of Evolutionism) -Long term participant observation Age of Exploration -Trade and Politics; sent by their monarchs to secure land and treasure -Conquest through diseases -Encountering the native populations, the early explorers thought of them as inferior and deficient (No religion, inferior technology, etc). Ethnocentrism (Judging by their culture’s standards). Unilineal Cultural Evolution ● -Different cultural forms are not randomly different, rather, what they represent are the different stages of social evolutionthrough which every human society had either passed, or would pass in the future. ● -Cultural evolutionwas seen to be a process in which the multiplicity of human groups developed through a series of stages from being ‘simple’, to ‘complex’. ● -Evolutionarytheorists saw their own world as the apex of civilization. For them, nineteenth century European
More Less

Related notes for ANTA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.