Class Notes (835,893)
Canada (509,478)
Anthropology (1,586)
ANTA02H3 (394)


6 Pages
Unlock Document

Maggie Cummings

ANTA02 - Lec02 Lecture #4 - January 26, 2010 The Sperm and the Egg- PDF The Muslim Woman - PDF Feeding Desire - Chapter 3 Reminders - FEBRUARY 5 = Think-piece assignment due - FEBRUARY 9 = Midterm! (All Multiple Choice) Last week - worldview: categories through which we can understand and experience the world - Shared cultures and beliefs transmitted through language - Time and language shaped by worldview - Perpetuate worldviews through rituals/ rites of passage (1) Separation (2) Liminality - middle stage of the rites of passages  no social status  betwixed and between  “Threshold” - you are standing in between two different things  Considered the most dangerous time during a rite of passage  things can go wrong and be SOCIALLY dangerous  Would be left without a status  If you go through it with other people, you make really strong bonds with these people i.e. military bootcamp - separated (shave head, estranged from self)  in Communitas - close bonds that supersede the intellectual o bring people in line with certain worldviews/ belief systems o end up with very close ties to people (feel attached to others - at a level of emotions and embodiment) (3) Integration BIOLOGY, BLOOD, and BELONGING -------------------------------------------------------------  See biology in a euro- American way  “natural” - we mean biological (i.e. acting a certain way is “natural”, meaning it is biological)  Biology defines reality and the laws of nature  Azawagh Arabs - biology on its own does not explain reality o “natural” = what is dictated by Allah (God’s will) Social Categories that shape our lives when we are born: (1) GENDER  WHY DO CERTAIN PEOPLE THINK CERTAIN WAYS ?  Cultural Constructionism - believe that: human behaviours and ideas are best explained as result of culturally shaped learning o PEOPLE DO THINGS BECAUSE THAT IS HOW THEY LEARNED IT  Spatial skills have been passed on culturally through learning and Example 1 that parents socialize their children (male/ female) differently from birth  Social construct think about knowledge in a subjective/ situational aspect  Concept or practise that appears to be natural, obvious, common sense, essential, timeless, god given Page 1 of 6  Take for granted as being common sense BUT is really a cultural invention or artefact  Example: Gender, Understanding of time (since industrialism and capitalism)  Result of human choices over a length of time (not necessarily intentional) -behaviour not a result of god or nature o Allow us to answer questions about how our worldviews are constructed (i.e. rituals, social construct) o How are certain phenomena created, institutionalised, and then turned into common sense? o Seen as an ongoing, dynamic process (biology - we behave based on biology; social construct- culture changes and that changes our behaviour; reality is not out there just for us to understand but is reproduced by people acting on their interpretations of worldviews and social constructs) o Knowledge is not out there for us to receive or find; not one objective knowledge; derived from and maintained by social interactions (culturally situated)  Biological Determinism - gives priority to biological features (genes, hormones, etc) and use them to explain behaviour and ideas o IE.:LOOK FOR CONGENITAL DEFECT TO LOOK FOR THE CAUSE OF CERTAIN BEHAVIOURS o Spatial Skills - human males have better spatial abilities than females as a Example 1 result of EVOLUTIONARY processes  Advantages in securing food, mates, impregnate more women, and thus pass on their skills to offspring  Most people take both perspectives into account (biology and culture)  Anthropologists fall under the cultural constructionism/ social constructionism category (2) G ENDER  Not all cultures rely on distinctions between rank, prestige, hierarchy, castes, classes  BUT all cultures use gender and age to categorize people and give them roles  Social construct - even though it is real/ biological, and the natural way of categorizing people o Sex - biological categories (males/ females) based on the genital, chromosomal, and hormonal differences o Gender - refers to patterns of culturally constructed and learned behaviour/ ideas attributed to men and women  men and women as social beings - what characteristics and roles they conform to  it is “mapped” on by “cultural frosting” on a “biological cake”  gender differences - refer to people as SOCIAL beings (men/ women; not females/ males) o i.e. men never need to ask for directions, women always need a map o attribute social things to sex differences (but are really social) - refer back to the sex differences to make sense of and explain reality o gender roles are reversed in many parts of the world (therefore, are culturally learned and not determined by biology) o only biological differences (generally) - giving birth, breastfeeding - everything else can be attributed to gender differences (socially) Page 2 of 6 (3)A NTHROPOLOGY AND G ENDER  See gender as a social construct- because of the difference they see in different cultures  Men don’t contribute any biological substance to a child - no biological need for men to contribute anything to a fetus (Trobriand island) o Gender roles varies between cultures  Assumptions about gender as “natural” th o Early 20 century, most anthropologists’ ethnographies were based on the information given by male informants (even information about what women did) *culture portrayed from the male point of view) o Assumed that there were natural roles between men and women - meaning you could look at any cultural and know what women were doing because they were naturally caregivers and housewives  Began looking at culture from the native’s point of view - gender roles of men and women could not be predicted or attributed to their biological differences  All human societies differentiate between men and women = considered important o Sex differences (culturally constructed) varies between cultures as well Examples: [Sambia of Papua New Guinea] - Have been valiant and ferocious warriors - Constantly under attack - needed to be trained to become warriors a. Boys do not “naturally” become men; they need help (requires work)  Difficulties with ‘coming of age’/ adolescence  Have to do work; go through trials to get there; and then “protect” it  Painful and difficult  Masculinity as a man is under threat and needs to be maintained and augmented o Until 6years old -live with mothers o After 6years, go live with men and don’t return until they are in their late teens o Get married when they return but will never live with the women again (live in “men’s houses”)  Live in constant fear of women - women’s bodily fluids have the ability to steal men’s strength and masculinity  Boys have to undergo a rite of passage 1. beginning with the separation from mothers 2. Transition State - induce the physiological changes that turn boys into men (stronger, braver, hairier,) *Something has to be done (induce) to make this change happen - boys lacked a physical substance that influenced the development of stature, height, muscles, warrior- quail - “Jurungdu” -essential masculine substance  concentrated in semen (from plants, foo
More Less

Related notes for ANTA02H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.