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Lecture 5


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Maggie Cummings

ANTA02-Lec01 Lecture #5 - February 2, 2010 REMINDERS: EXAM (Mid Term) - worth 20% of final mark - Will write midterm in class - DONT FORGET T-CARD!! - Multiple choice - based on lecture #1-#5 (Lectures, readings, PDFs, Feeding Desire - Chp.1-5) - Sample questions posted on Intranet - Approx. 40 MC questions (2 hours) - VSI - key terms, important people (memorize and understand- connections) - PDF Articles - Author, title, main concepts/ content (groups of people, where, argument, understand/ recognize the argument) - Feeding Desire - key argument in each chapter, who she is talking about, where they live, major religion - Lectures - study off lecture notes/ PowerPoint slides **feeding desire assignment due by February 26, 2010 (sample assignment posted on Intranet) - Referencing = from actual book - Talk about paper with TA’s or during office hours **No tutorials next week (Feb 8-12) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- KINSHIP............................... “Natural” Relationship - relatives/ relations (KINDSHIP, descent patterns, marriage)  Kinship - takes care of your livelihood, reproduction, ideology, career, marriage, who will protect you, who will show you affection, social identity (how do you matter in a society) o Shapes aspects of life - marriage, childrearing, labour divisions, etc [industrial societies] o In non-industrial societies, it is the primary mode of social organization (organizes people into coherent and meaningful groups that cooperate together) o Gender and age = group people in all societies o BASIC FORM OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION (especially in small scale societies) o Kinship and social organization closely related/ are the same thing, especially in small scale societies  Early anthropological work: focused on who was related to who o Different cultures all have different ways of thinking about kinship (who is related, who is not related, who is important to who) o Euro-American - emphasis on BLOOD RELATIONSHIPS (favoured over any other relations)  In other societies, they believe that the people who are blood-related to you are the ones who will betray you (i.e. competition between family members for land, money, etc) o Came up with a classified, organized ways of coming up with kinship systems  Who is your kin?  What are your obligations as that person?  Formal systems  Kinship symbols - need to know the symbols to understand the diagrams (colours don’t represent anything - only the shapes do) o Diagonal line through a ‘person’ = death; through an equal sign = divorce o Square = unknown gender OR EGO  EGO - if you know the gender (=triangle/ circle) o “lynch-pin” - the person whose kin relation you are trying to figure out (i.e. that triangle is ego’s brother, etc) o REFERENCE POINT (generally in the centre of the diagram)  There must be a way to universally label people from an outsider’s perspective o ETIC - looking at kinship from an outsider’s perspective o EMIC - from a native’s perspective (the insider’s perspective) Etic Kinship Terms  Ego = reference point (square, triangle, circle)  FA = father  MO = mother  BR = brother  Z = sister  H = husband  W = Wife  S =Son  DA = daughter - Can’t call people by specific terms (i.e. cousin, aunt, etc) because in different perspectives, they have different meanings and they represent different kinds of relationships o i.e. |Azawagh Arabs| - Father’s brother’s son = ideal for marriage Mother’s sister’s son = NOT ideal for marriage  different relations between these people, even though we would see both as COUSINS Eskimo Kinship Terms  named after the first group that was found to have this classification system (other people besides “Eskimos” use this kinship drawing)  Ego = orange square (might be boy or girl) *insider’s perspective - EMIC] o Ego has a FA, MO, BR, Z o Ego also has U (uncle), A (aunt), CU (cousins) o Patrilateral and Matrilateral kin  Standard Euro-American nomenclature  Has unique terms for kin who are part of a nuclear family (don’t use them outside of your immediate family - i.e. call only one person MO, FA, Z (multiple), BR (multiple)) o **main and most important form of family = NUCLEAR family; social organization (share a home, provide for each other, shape each other, are responsible for you, etc)  Therefore, they have these specific names (MO/ FA) that aren’t shared by any other people outside of the nuclear family o Same terms are used for relatives on both the matrilateral and patrilateral sides (BILATERAL DESCENT)  equally related to people on both sides (in theory)  Only practised in 30% of the world’s culture  60% of the world’s culture use UNILINEAL DESCENT Unilineal Descent  Recognize descent only through one side (i.e. only mother’s side or only father’s side)  Related to people on both sides, but one side is more important o You belong to people mainly on one side (inheritance, important, marriage rules/ taboos, relationships, class/ caste = based on the ONE important side)  Act on relationships on both sides in different ways  Azawagh Arabs = patrilinear unilineal descent  Not many matrilineal descent (i.e. Trobriand Islands) IRIQUOIS Kinship System  Double unilineal descent system o Ego belongs to the descent of both sides (unilineal on BOTH sides) o NOT THE SAME AS BILATERAL o Not related to people in the same way on both sides - related to parent’s families in different ways (i.e. mother’s sister vs. father’s sister)  Father’s sister = not that important (because she will marry out of the family) o Father’s sister’s children = cousins (don’t belong to the family - not linked through a man of the family)  Mother’s brothers = not that important (not really part of the lineage) Cross Cousins - children of opposite sex siblings (i.e. your mother’s brother’s children; father’s sister’s children) ***not part of/ don’t belong to the lineage (for unilineal descent) “Cousins” Parallel Cousins - children of same sex siblings (i.e. fathe
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