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ANTB05-Lec 3

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Jude Fokwang

ANTB05- Lecture 3 How do societies stay together?  Many of them thought that societies stayed together because of their customs; social solidarity  Radcliffe-Brown (one of the founders of Anthropology): he was a contemporary  Emile Durkheim (French sociologist): - The Division of Labour in Society- book that Durkheim wrote - He made a distinction between social solidarity - He thought it was important to compare the relationship between an individual & society - Argued that each society pre-existed each individual (you are born into the society) - Society: a combination of individual acts - Society has the ‘collective conscience’ ;the force - It would reward people for obeying them or punish them - For instance: in prison we imagine only certain people to be admitted but a lot of other people go to prison as well - People cannot change society in any specific way - Durkheim proposed 2 kinds of solidarity:  Mechanical Solidarity  Organic Solidarity  Mechanical Solidarity: - Homogenous, certain absence of structure, it was not distinguishable - All of the members are common in terms of experiences but they do not depend on each other to survive. - Individuality - Not Urban, small-scaled  Organic Solidarity: - Connected by some centralized structure - Homogenous segments but each organ has a special role - Interdependent society - They need each other to function - Often in societies that were organized, European  Durkheim suggested that there was a relationship between the 2 solidarities Social Solidarity & Functionalism:  What kept societies going..  Malinowski; the function of culture was to meet specific biological needs  A trait of culture played a very significant role towards the maintenance of society  Example: the relevance that is played by bride wealth towards legalizing marriage  Functionalism: - each society plays a function - they were interested in explaining the nature of society - Synchronic - what is it that kept society going? - Structure of functionalism: whether there were beliefs, social structures - how things stayed the same rather than how things have changed  Critiques of Functionalism: - power & conflict - colonial period: how things stayed the same - ancient, bounded - It has been criticised for being circular & indeterminate - they were not interested in people who thought differently ANTB05- Lecture 3 - Piot’s work: secular & indeterminate - Example: Bridewealth as a legitimization of marriage: what happens when the marriage fails? - Functionalists didn’t really care about the bigger pict
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