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Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Schillaci

Chapter 7 Human origins: rise of the genus homo Morpholigical differences between early homo and Australopithecines Feature Early Homo Australopithecines Sagittal and nuchal crests Absent Present (males) Brain size Relatively larger Relatively smaller Face Relatively smaller Relatively larger Mandible Less robust More robust Incisors and canines Smaller Larger Premolars and molars Smaller Larger * Some of the australopithecines have crest Homo: bigger brains, smaller teeth  Absolute difference refer to unique features that distinguish one species from another  Relative differences typically refer to slight variations in a trait between taxa Homo habilis and rudolfensis Habilis – Most complete fossil. 2.3 mya – 16. Mya • From sites in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. • Species designation: brain size and association with stone tools. • Skeletal morphology similar to contemporaneous australopithecines. • First species of Homo or junk taxon?  Homo habilis: “handyman”  Type specimen: the original specimen from which the description of a new species is made  Long forelimbs and robust bones  635 cc Homo rudoflensis - - Koobi Fora, Kenya. - Originally considered H. habilis. - H. rudolfensis or H. habilis first representative of our genus? - Larger brain 750 cc - No saggital crest - no subnasl prognathism - Researches don’t know how vertical the face is because of the of fossils. - Sizes of the teeth are large. - Mix of derived and primitive characters - Mosaic evolution – combo of derived and primitive characteristics Homo erectus (aisa) and ergaster (Africa) Ergaster is found in Africa and East Africa • Earliest African specimens. • Turkana boy: adult height estimate, limb proportions, and predicted strength. • Limb proportions – arms were shorter and legs were longer. ( proportions look very much like modern human) • Debate on H. erectus or H. ergaster as direct ancestor of modern humans.  The first definitive hominin to be found outside Africa  Thicker cranial bones, larger brow ridges, smaller molars and premolars, and more gracile mandible  Homo ergaster skulls, like the skull of KNM-ER 3733 illustrated here, show a mix of primitive and derived features.  Homo ergaster (Examples WT15000, and ER3733)  Found in Africa at about 1.8 mya  Found in Eurasia (Georgia) at about 1.1 to 1.7 mya  Derived morphological characteristics: large bodies, long legs/short arms, reduced sexual dimorphism, and large brow ridges.  Unique by having an occipital torus  Cranial capacity approx. 800 - 900 cc  Makers of the Acheulean tool industry which is characterized by the characteristic hand-axe. Slower growth rate is a to derived characteristic and Faster growth rate is primitive character. - All early homo do not have a chin *** Homo ergaster and H. erectus differed in a number of ways. Most notably, H. erectus had a sagittal keel and a more pronounced occipital torus, and the sides of its skull sloped more than did those of H. ergaster. Postregmatic depression and sagittal keep in erectus Homo heidelbergensis and antecessor ( not well accepted) • Europe and Africa. • 800–300 KYA. • Compared to H. erectus, differences in H. heidelbergensis:  Dentition – reduction in the size of the teeth  Brain size – increase in brain size almost as humans  Body size – larger body size and body mass  Heidelbergensis is the new taxonomic designation for specimens that used to be called archaic homo sapiens  Smaller teeth, divided supraorbital torus, and larger cranial capacity  Sometime between 800 kya and 500 kya, hominids with higher, more rounded crania and larger brains first appear in the fossil record, and by 400 kya Homo heidelbergensis was common in Africa and western Eurasia. This figure shows two H. heidelbergensis fossils, one from Kabwe (sometimes called Broken Hill) in Zambia, and the second from Petralona in Greece. Both are approximately 400,000 years old.  Terra Amata – South of France  Evidences of wooden spears of 400,000 ya  Large brow ridges  Length of the face is large but small teeth  Large nasal cavity Homo ergaster is found in Africa and Europe from 1.8 mya until about 1 mya. Homo heidelbergensis is found at sites in Africa and Europe that date to between 800 kya and 300 kya. Only H. erectus is found in East Asia during this period. * Bose basin should be blue and not black Homo neanderthalensis Classic Neanderthals 180, 00 – 30,000 ya *** - Gene flow and Cold adapter –Contreversey around this. - Gene flow – Neantherals should be species or sub species to humans. - **Birdgans rule – body size increasing with decreasing temperature or increasing latitude. - ***Allen Rule : Relative limb length decreases while latitude increases - Were they cold adapted ? they look like cavemen • Europe and Middle East. • 300 – 30 KYA. • Cranial and dental features. • Body proportions and presumed strength. • Neanderthal DNA. From fossil bone No classic Neanderthals - ( phyletic gradualism ) Not relative to this class  Large cc, 1065-1745, strong supraorbital torus, large nose, retromolar gap, weak chin, and taurodont molars  Retromolar gap: space between the third molar and the rear portion of the mandible 18 16 Fluctuations in the ratio of O to O over the last 160,000 years (from a core drilled in the deepest part of the Greenland ice cap) indicate that about 100 kya the world’s 16 climate got colder and less stable. In ice cores, more 18O relative to O indicates higher average global temperatures. (In the deep-sea cores, in contrast, more O 18 16 relative to O indicates lower temperatures.)  Variation in temperatures They were adapted to extreme cold weather. • 127,000-27,000 bp (before present) in Europe and portions of western Eurasia. • Associated with the Mousterian stone tool industry based on the Levallois core reduction technique. • Buried their dead – indication of culture • May have cared for injured - • Occipital bun ( hotdog bun shaped) • Large brow ridges • Midfacial prognathism  Retromolar space: space between the third molar and the rear portion of the mandible ( shared derived chatacteristics) • No chin • Taurodont: very large pulp cavities combined with reduced root size. It’s a shared derived chatater. • Volume of the nose is big The skulls of Neanderthals, like this one from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, a
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