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ANTB14H3 (28)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Schillaci

LECTURE 1 – ANTB14  EVO ANTHRO  5 RESEARCH DISCIPLINES IN EVO ANTHRO  PRIMATOLOGY  PALEOANTHROPOL  HUMAN VARIATION  MEDICAL ANTHRO  FORENSIC ANTHRO  HOW DO EVO ANTHRO CONDUCT RESEARCH?  DEV OF EVO CONCEPTS  LINNAEUS  LECLERC  LAMARCK  CUVIER  HUTTON  MENDEL  MAP  DARWIN THEORY  MICROEVO/MACROEVO/GENOTYPE/PHENOTYPE EVO ANTHRO – holistic study of human variation (bio/cult/linguis)  Globally and through time (holistic) – more than just cultural variation today – global perspective  Overlaps evo bio, how evo processes as they pertain to human origins and bio variation  Differential evo bio – in how they pertain to our evo history and observable human variation  Conduct research in field (includes survey for fossils in Africa, excavating neandertal cave site, observing beh in wild)  May do in labs, extracting DNA, or measure stress hormones in blood samples from primates/humans  Focus on dev better understanding on how evo process play role in evo history of humans (how primates can inform our understanding of human evo history) 5 RESEARCH DISCIPLINES (PPHMF)  PRIMATOLOGY: non-human primates (anatomy, beh, thru field studies of wild animals to primate psychology) LECTURE 1 – ANTB14  Reproductive beh/sexual selection  Primate disease, ecology (foraging strategies)  Conservation of primates in tropical ecosystems  PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: speciation importance (how this is diff from other forms of evo)  Cultural activities – reflected in achaeo records (when did we first use tools – not necessarily bio evidence but could be looking at stone tools)  Multidisciplinary study of: bio evo of humans/non-human primates  Advent of and changes in human cultural activities  Evo history of beh in human/non-human primates (social and subsistence, locomotive beh (upright bipedal))  HUMAN VARIATION (Spatial/Temporal Variation in human features)  Distribution of human morphology (shape/size) varies geographically  Birdman Rule – as animals w/in species from equator and inc latitude (goes north or south) body size increase  Allan Rule – relative lengths of limbs dec w/ inc latitude  North pop – larger and shorter limbs  Adaptive advantage for conserving body heat, reduce surface area body  Evo context for morph variation  Skin colour – bad marker for pop variation b/c dark skin seems to be clustered around equator  MEDICAL ANTHRO (AKA BIOMEDICAL ANTHRO)  Defn: How soc, envi, and bio factors influence health and illness of indiv at community, regional, national and global lvls.  Soc/Cultural aspects of health/medicine  Bio anthro – more for epidemio and nature of illness  Medical anthro – how poor nutrition and disease affect pattern of growth and dev in region of world  How breast feeding practice effect health in dev countries  FORENSIC ANTHRO  Matching skeleton w/ missing person reports  CSI, criminal minds – not exactly  Only interested in skeleton – whether or not particular skeleton matches person LECTURE 1 – ANTB14  DEFN: seek to determine age, sex, stature, ancestry, and any trauma or disease of the deceased. RESEARCH  Descriptive (how diff spec diff in physical traits – comparative framework)  Causal (what evo process responsible for observed diff phys traits?)  Applied (method made for des and causal to address a specific need)  Sci Theory: well sustainable explanation of some aspect of natural world that incorporates facts laws predictions and tested hypothesis (little bit diff than theory)  Not based on empiral evidence, more of a hunch  Theory – based on foundation of hyp which have not been falsified supporing an explanation (collection of similar hypotheses unrejected)  Hypothesis; testable statement about natural world that researchers use to build explanation – must be falsifyble and testable  Research seeks to disprove a hyp – thru exp and obs – we say the research fails to reject hyp rather than proving a hyp  Professor believes evolution is a scientific theory and doesn’t believe it  Creationist – believes that God made everything (belief) – not a wrong one but not meaningful for scientific field  Evolution and Creationism are like apples and oranges  Hypothesis is based on previous obs or evidence  Island Dwarfism in elephants – things small will get to be larger over many generations (vice versa)  Flores island in Indonesia – during Pleistocene they had mastodons – smaller  On same island – komodo dragons – larger  Can use empirical bases of hyp that island effect applies to humans – and that hyp is testable by looking for human fossil remains and comparing it to other larger islands DEVELOPMENT OF EVO CONCEPTS  Linnaeus (taxonomic system and binomial nomenclature) - similar grps – named into taxa – started from inclusive to exclusive LECTURE 1 – ANTB14 (specific grpings) = called the binomial nomen (genus and species : homo is our genus and sapiens is species)  Starts from general classif (mammals – eg. All that lactate – w/in that grp will be smaller grps (orders = primates))  Leclerc (biogeography) – french naturalist – species often change after they move from 1 place to another (new place causes species changes)  Lamarck (soft inheritance) – french academic – plant and animal diversity – indiv of give species will lose char that are not useful and dev useful char (individual) – past on to next gen these useful char – envi changes alter beh and phys char (as envi changes, what is useful not useful also changes) – eg. Hulk hogan – bulking – he would pass that on to his kids – not true. Eg. Giraffes – grow neck to get fruit from tall tree .  Cuvier (catastrophism) – naturalist – comparative anatomy – species can and have gone extinct – not well accepted – b/c of idea of fixity of species (god made these and does not go extinct)  Hutton (uniformitarianism) - Scottish and Lyell – uniform – earth was formed and change w/ same natural processes operating today – geo processes today like erosion and EQ, same ones were occuring in past.  Earth was much older than previously thought – likely influenced darwin w/ NS  Darwin’s thought – evo changes was a long time ago – not enough time to explain the diversity of organisms MAP  Charles Darwin, who is credited with the “discovery” of the principal of natural selection in 1838, was born in England in 1809. He died in 1882. Darwin was part of an expedition to map the coast of South America between 1831 and 1834-35 aboard the HMS Beagle. As the Naturalist for the expedition, Darwin was in charge of collecting and describing plant and animal specimens encountered on this expedition. During his long journey, after observing incredible plant and animal diversity, as well as fossils, he became interested in the question of how species come about. He was convinced that species came about by slow change. Just HOW species changed was still a LECTURE 1 – ANTB14 mystery. In 1838, shortly after returning home from his journey, Darwin read Thomas Malthus’ essay titled “An Essay on the Principal of Population”. In this essay Malthus, among other things, presents the notion that populations can increase in size exponentially while food supplies remain relatively stable. This means that eventually a population will increase to the point that there is not enough food or resources. This notion would become the cornerstone of Darwin’s theory of evolution.  For dates – prof gives a range of dates –  Darwin’s voyage – how species came about? What causes the diversity observed? Convinced – species came out by SLOW change – how species changed was still a mystery  Read malthus essay – principle of population –  Eventually – pop inc to not enough food and resources –  All extinct species share a common ancestry called the tree of life  Closely related species share a more common ancestor  Started in england – east coast of SA, tierra del fuego, going to andes, galapogos island, new zealand, australia, africa, back to england  Nature selects for certain traits who compete w/ each other to access food/mates DARWIN THEORY  Darwin’s theory
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