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ANTB14H3 (28)
Lecture 2


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Michael Schillaci

LEC 2CHAPTER 2MICROEV AND EVO ANTHRORecapdirectional vs stabilizing selection InheritenceVariation needed for NS passed on from 1 gen to anotherEg Finches rlsp bw avg parental beak sizeoffspring beak sizegenerally pos linearDarwin didnt know about inheritence or how the rlsn is passed onMendelexperimenting 7 phenotypes colour of peas and skin texturePheno vs genotype st 1 bred plants to make 1 char such as pod colour consistentlypure strain of peas st Then cross bred1 genyielded 1 of 2 char nd 2 genfound 31 ratioGene having 2 alleles 1 from each parent Eukaryotic vs prokaryoticE nucleus P no nucCell anatomywin nucDNA in form of chromosomeshas hereditary infoEach E cell can rep cell through mitosis divide into 2 identical daughter cellssame num of chromosomes as parent cellMeiosisdaughter cells has half chromosomes from parentoccur only in production of gametesPunetteach column1 allele st Homozygous yy or YY vs heterozygous all in 1 gen will be heterozygousSimple peaplant w 1 locus easy to study nd 2 gen 3 will be dominant 1 recessiveFactorsgenes nd 1 factor must mask effect of the other only in 2 gen will we see the recessive cndnINHERITANCE AND BIO EVOLUTIONChromosomes molecules containing genesMitosis Cellular division to replicate cellsMeiosis Cellular division to create daughter cells withDNA as parent cellGamete sex cellMITOSISMEIOSISLEC 2CHAPTER 2MICROEV AND EVO ANTHRO MITOSIS2 diploid cellsDNA repchromosomes chromatidSpindlesDaughterparentHuman23 matched pairs of chromosomes 22 pairs are autosomes for all phenotypic char 1 pair of sex chromosomes Y or X from dad and X from momMitosisdiploid daughterMeiosishaploid gametes 1 set of chromosomes1 sperm haploid and 1 egg haploiddiploid zygoteCrossing over and recombinationway of maintaining variation in population new combos of genes even w same mom and dadMeiosis 1alignment of homologous chromosomesRandom assortmentseen in meiosis 1pull apart chromosomes to get 2 daughter cells no rep of DNAZygotes w unique combos of mat and pat genesEnd of chromosometelomeres caps which protect DNAw age and stress will affects the telomeresAt each locus theres an alleleProphase 1crossing over and random assortment mixing DNA on chromatid
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