Class Notes (837,449)
Canada (510,273)
Anthropology (1,602)
ANTB14H3 (28)

Hominid tutorial notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Michael Schillaci

Hominid casts 1 – ANTB14 Evolutionary trends = bipedalism, increased brain size, cranial morphology, and dental morphology Bipedalism: pelvis shape, spinal curvature, foramen magnum, femur, foot shape, hallux placement Bipedal Quadrupeds Broad pelvis (3 bones) Elongated pelvis Pelvis is short and wide Grasping feet (primates) Arched feet (absorbs pressure) Legs are as far apart from each other as Femur is angled = center of gravity possible (parallel to one another) Spinal curvature is S shapes (2 curves) Spinal curvature = 1 curve helps absorb walking pressure The foramen magnum for quadrupeds Since the human bowl head is heavy the are located more posteriorly vertebrate must support it therefore for humans the foramen magnum is located in the center Brain size increases (humans have a large brain size relative to their body size Cranial morphology: prognatism, sagittal and nuchal crests  Facial prognatism: in humans the face eventually becomes more flat  There are 2 cranial traits that some species develop over their lifetime (not born with)  Sagittal crest  Nuchal crest Dental morphology Teeth size and thickness of enamel Front teeth are larger than the Posterior teeth It is the other way around for humans Shape of dental arch: the dental arch for apes are parallel but parabolic for humans Diastema: is the gap which enable proper closing for animals with large canines 1 First hominins - sahelanthropus tchadensis (central Africa 7 MYA) - Orrorin tugenensis (eastern Africa 6 MYA) - Ardipithecus ramidus and kadabba (eastern Africa 6-4 MYA) Australopithecines - Australopithecus anamensis (keyna (eastern Africa, Kenya, 4.2-3.9MYA) Dental remains and tibia (bipedalism) - Australopithecus afarensis (multiple east African sites) Ethiopia and Tanzania, 4.2-3 MYA, brain size 410cc, prognatic face, nuchal crest, dentition (famous Lucy found in Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald Johanson) - Australopithecus africanus (south Africa) Laetoli footprints- 2 adults and a child South Africa 3-2.3MYa, Taung child, brainsize 458cc, less prognatism, dentition (smaller canines increases in premolars and molars) lack of sagittal and nuchal crest Robust Australopithecines Australopithecus aethiopicus: Kenya (east Africa) - Black Skull - Kenya, 2.7-2.3 MYA - Cranial capacity 410cc - Hyper-robust - Sagittal and nuchal crest - Large molars and premolars - Small incisors and canines - Flared zygomatic bones Australopithecus robutus (south Africa) - south Africa 2-1 MYA - brain size 563cc - small anterior and large posterior teeth - sagittal and nuchal crests Australopithecus boisei (east Africa) - Tanzania, 2.2-1.2 MYA - Cranial capacity – 500-545cc - The most robust of all australopithecines - Sagittal and nuchal crests - Very robust mandible - Small anterior and huge posterior teeth 2 A. afarensis Taung child A. africanus Size of anterior Dentition is not teeth compared Larger permenant (child) Anterior still large to posterior Size of canines Large and present N/A but canines Smaller and not and diastema are the same size, present no diastima Shape of dental Parallel parallel Parallel arch Prognathism Pronounced Pronounced Pronounced Shape of the Triangle N/A Hill shape cranial base Sagittal crest Absent N/A Absent Nuchal crest Moderate N/A mild Cat Macaca Chimps Human Foramen Posterior Posterior Posterior Anterior magnum Shape of the Singular curve Singular curve Singular curve Dual curve spine Shape of the Long and Long and Long and Short and pelvis narrow narrow narrow broad Greater Absent Absent Absent Present sciatic notch Femur Short and Short and Short and Long and
More Less

Related notes for ANTB14H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.