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Larry Sawchuk

Lecture 05: ANT B15 Breeding Populations: clarified - Restricted gene flow : hetero population From a macro (big) perspective: East to west: see variation in allele B: ABO blood type B: clinal distribution:: satellite view Bird Flying over Italy: there are pockets of different levels of B, as you move closer to the micro level there are a lot of variations Clinal: temperature?? Molecular genetics: - Polymorphism: mini forms such as type ABO: the ploy: is A, B - A lot of variation in the DNA - Classical markers: like ABO, Duffy : indirect observation: looking at the presence of patterns - Molecular markers ; direct observation - Know the nucleotide basis: the ACTG: - SNP’s: Hemolytic disease of the newborn: - HDN - Rh: blood type: dd: Rh- - The problem: mom is Rh- and the partner is Rh+ and what happens is that the mom is dd and the dad Rh+ in the womb circulating in the system that is recognized antigen: foreign substance which recognized and the mother will try to produce antibodies, and the antibodies try to destroy Rh+ : antigens, the child may die though!!  Landsteiner: - Discovered the ABO and the Rh blood system : Rh: rhesus: they used these monkeys to test the blood types - There are many incompatabilities - Disease was first described in 1939 - *Doesn’t affect rde fitht born offspring, it is rare, most of the incompatibility occurs by the 3 or 4 child because - This example is selected against heterozygote!!!! Against Dd - When you have a population that Rh- is rare, this condition is rare , the allele - It is more in north Americans, whites , Asians have it rare: the allele An Rh – person does not begin to produce anti-Rh antibodies unless he or she is exposed to Rh antigen by: - Through blood transfusion - Through pregnancy: through the delivery the fetus is being expelled from the mother along with the fetus there is blood and when blood is contact with mother, mom recognizes as foreign object so she is sensitized; during first rd pregnancy she produces antibodies that she is sensitized, by the time 3 child is born the level the huge protection of antibodies that damage the child Maternal-fetal incompatibility: RBC: RED BLOOD CELLS: erythrocyte Anemia: lack of energy, lack of iron Premie: first child Multi: more than one child You can do medical intervention: - Prevent a mother for having an issue with rh+ child - Remove antigens: so that she is not sensitized - You can also have fewer children - You can get injections for anti rh, they destroy quickly the antigens that are circulating Examples of Human Variation: Simple traits and Genetic Diseases - Every trait that has genetic basis, there are very rare that are environmental - Purely environmental condition: minamata disease - BONOUS: minamata disease and why is it environmental?? - Most of the common attributes morphological features have a polygenic (more than one genes operating with the environment) etiology: the cause Genetic based diseases/ conditions: - Each one of us has 50 thousand-100,000 diff genes: there are many diff combinations - Something that starts and something that stops - Congenital malformation: common condition: it can be benign: not lethal or it can deadly : KNOW THE LIST - Bonus: Inborn errors of metabolism: who is the first person to describe the inborn error of metabolism - You don’t get one gene to be ne effect: just because you have a gene doesn’t mean you express the condition - Albinism: makes this European : lack of pigmentation in the hair, and everywhere : autosomal receive trait : can be found on different chromosome and losi - There are two type: you are getting an error in metabolism that is necessary to get layed melanin is screwed up - TYPE 1: usually found among Europeans: The tyrosine is needed to lay down melanin you need the substance and you need the enzyme to divert that particular substance to cross over, since the gene/enzyme you don’t produce melanin so you become albinism - TYPE 2: usually found with native Americans: you have the enzyme but something is screwed up that won’t allow you to lay down produce melanin PKU: - Produces unwanted results in children -
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