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Latin America Anthro Class 3.docx

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Chris Krupa

th January 24 , 2012 Latin America Anthropology Week 3 Indigenous Responses to Conquest Review from last week: Two mentalities: “enslavement” *Columbus+ >gold >ingegenous people = not human, enslaveable, objects and “colonialism” * Las casas+ >instead of gold, gold >inegenous people are also people >he wanted to treat indigenous people because the indigenous people can become Christian >assimilation Reasons for Victory (some stuff from last week) [how the Spaniards took over these complex people] Conventional explainations: 1. Lack of indigenous action 2. Spanish exploitation of indigenous rivalries 3. Spanish military superiority th Todorov’s 4 reason: 1. Lost control of signs >They were judging Spaniards based off previous conquests >they did not recognize the differences The basic structure of early colonial society - Viceroyalities >gave a control over these terretories to the viceroyalty who operates in the capital city >>from the vice royalty, you go down to different administrators - “Dual Republic” model >a republic of the Spaniards and the republic of the Indians >>two governing structures >>>the world in the Americas divided into a bi lateral thing >>>>>Indians saw themselves as a single unit for the first time (in relation to everyone else) >>>>>>>this classification was enforced through structures - tribute (head tax) >Indians had to pay this >>even in equator, 80% of the state’s revenue came from tribute >>>structures heavily enforced it because they needed the money badly - Ecomiendas - > haciendas > haviendas = lasting structures of the colonial and post-colonial societies [look up encomiendas] - Reduccionnes >reductions (Indian reserves) >>large settlements that were organized in a way so that tribute collection was easy >>>also labour drafts (sent to work in the mines) - Mit’a >labour debt >>something that is owed to the inca lord >>>all these policies are similar to the Incas >>>>>except the Spaniards didn’t treat them nice >>>>>>Incas practiced good will because this colonized nation were to become Incas - Diezmos >indigienous people owed a tenth of their crops to the church TO BE CLASSIFIED INDIAN BROUGHT THESE THINGS ON YOU Indigenous Responses to Conquest - die >population estimates from 1492 – 120 million >>by 1750 250,000 lived >>>from 1492 – 1750, 90% of population was done >>>>they died from brutality (justified by thinking of Indians as not people) >>>>>also died from disease in general (smallpox . meezles, bubonic plague etc. etc.) >>>>>>>people died in the mines and labour drafts >>>>>>>>the most important mine was in Bolivia – the legend was that you can build a brigde of silver from Bolivia to Madrid because there was so much silver (this shows how much people died to get this sivler) - move >lots of people running and moving. >>if you moved you could escape the census >>>they could get unknown and avoid labour draft and not pay tribute >>>>some people tried to stop being Indian. People would start Spanish practices so they did not look like Indians >>>>>excelerating mixture complicated records (Spanish guys are horny since they didn’t bring women) - assimilate >adapting to Spanish customs Early Colonial Responses “Nativism” (circa 1560)” an uncompromising rejection of all things Spanish/Christian and call for a return to pre-colonial order 1. i.e. Taki Onqoy (“dancing/singing sickness”) >taki onqoy: possessed by an ancestor or ruling god of your native tradition >>withdrawl of Spanish >>>demanding they are removed from the Americas >>>>these movements were stopped by missionaries 2. “Indianist” (la
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